What are the anatomical and functional links between the endocrine system and nervous system?
hypothalamus and adrenal medulla
What is an endocrine glad?
gland that secretes hormones into the bloodstream
What is a hormone?
chemical that alters the activity of specific cells
What is a target cell?
specific cell targeted by hormones
How do paracrine regulators differ from hormones?
a paracrine regulator is a target cell near the secreting cell
How do autocrine regulators differ from hormones?
an autocrine regulator is a target cell that is also the secreting cell
What are the chemical classes of hormones?
polypeptides, steroids, amines
Lipid-soluble hormones mode of transport to the bloodstream
cytoplasm or nucleus
Water-soluble hormones mode of transport to the bloodstream
2nd messenger system
Lipid-soluble ability to pass through the cell membranes of target cells
directly trigger cell response
Water-soluble ability to pass through the cell membranes of target cells
indirectly trigger cell response via signal transduction
Lipid-soluble location of receptors at target cells
inside target cells
Water-soluble location of receptors at target cells
surface of target cells
How do lipid-soluble hormones typically affect target cells?
alter gene transcription and protein production
How do water-soluble hormones typically affect target cells?
alter membrane transport, enzyme activation, or gene transcription
Examples of lipid-soluble hormones
cortisol and thyroxine
Examples of water-soluble hormones
insulin and epinephrine
How can a single hormone have multiple effects?
different receptor types produce different responses
What are tissues that produce hormones?
What are organs that produce hormones?
Anatomy of the anterior pituitary
pars distalis, Pars tuberalis, Pars intermedia
Function of the anterior pituitary
hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones control release of hormones from anterior pituitary
Anatomy of the posterior pituitary
Pars nervosa, Infundibular stalk
Function of the posterior pituitary
neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus release hormones from posterior pituitary
Eight hormones released from the anterior pituitary (with their target cells and functions)
tropic, FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH, Prolactin, MSH, GH
Two hormones released from the posterior pituitary (with their target cells and functions)
oxytocin and ADH (vasopressin)
T3 and T4; regulate metabolic rate and proper growth and development
calcitonin; lowers blood calcium
parathyroid hormone; increases blood calcium and completes vitamin D synthesis in kidneys
insulin; lowers blood glucose
glucagon; raises blood glucose
thymosin; controls maturation of T cells
epinephrine and norepinephrine; promote fight-or-flight response
aldosterone and cortisol; increase blood glucose and pressure
melatonin; regulates daily and seasonal rhythms and controls the reproductive system
estrogen and progesterone; control development of sex traits and reproduction
testosterone; controls development of sex traits and sex drive
secretin and CCK; stimulate pancreas to release bicarbonate and enzymes, and stimulates gall bladder to contract
erythropoieten; increases red blood cell production
HCG; maintains endometrium during pregnancy
What are the stress responses of glucocorticoids?
Proteins and fats broken down and converted to glucose, leading to increased blood glucose.
Partial suppression of immune system.
What are the stress responses of mineralocorticoids?
Retention of sodium ions and water by kidneys.
Increased blood volume and pressure.
What are the stress responses of epinephrine and norepinephrine?
glycogen broken down to glucose; increased blood glucose.
increased blood pressure, breathing rate, and metabolic rate.
Change in blood flow patterns.
What is the role of a second messenger in hormone action?
It relays a hormone's message inside a target cell.
Which one of the following endocrine organs does not actually manufacture hormones but, rather, stores hormones produced elsewhere?