Campbell Biology 10th Edition: Unit 4 Bio Mastering Biology Practice Test Flashcards


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Unit 4 Bio Mastering Biology Practice Test Chapters: 10, 29, 30, 35, 36, & 37
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1

Most of the dry mass of a plant is the result of uptake of _____.

A. Water and minerals through root hairs

B. Carbon dioxide through stoma

C. Carbon dioxide and oxygen through stomata in leaves

D. Water and minerals through mycorrhizae

B. Carbon dioxide through stoma

2

Compared to C3 plants, C4 plants _____.

A. Can continue to fix CO2 even at lower CO2 concentrations and higher oxygen concentrations

B. Make a four-carbon compound, oxaloacetate, which is then delivered to the citric acid cycle in mitochondria

C. Do not use rubisco for carbon fixation

D. Have higher rates of photorespiration

A. Can continue to fix CO2 even at lower CO2 concentrations and higher oxygen concentrations

3

A botanist discovers a new species of land plant with a dominant sporophyte, chlorophylls a and b, and cell walls made of cellulose. In assigning this plant to a phylum, which of the following, if present, would be LEAST useful?

A. Seeds

B. Flowers

C. Spores

D. Endosperm

C. Spores

4
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The following question refer to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure below. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents either meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

In the figure above, the process labeled "6" involves _____.

A. Mitosis

B. Meiosis

C. Binary fission

D. Fertilization

A. Mitosis

5

What evidence do paleobotanists look for that indicates the movement of plants from water to land?

A. Sporopollenin to inhibit evaporation from leaves

B. Loss of structures that produce spores

C. Remnants of chloroplasts from photosynthesizing cells

D. Waxy cuticle to decrease evaporation from leaves

D. Waxy cuticle to decrease evaporation from leaves

6

Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?

A. Root cap

B. Storage roots

C. Root hairs

D. The thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem

C. Root hairs

7

Students conducted an experiment to determine the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis. They punched 40 leaf disks from spinach leaves and used a syringe partially filled with water to pull the gases from the leaf disks so that all leaf disks sunk to the bottom of the syringe. Ten (10) leaf disks from the syringe were placed in each of four cups and covered with 50 ml of the solutions as indicated below. All leaf disks were resting on the bottom of the cups when the experiment began. The volume of liquid in each cup and the temperature of the solutions were held constant. All cups were placed 0.5 meters from the designated light source. A large beaker of water was placed between the light and the cups to act as a heat sink to prevent a change in temperature. At the end of 10 minutes, the number of disks floating in each cup was recorded.

Use your knowledge of the mechanism of photosynthesis and the data presented in the chart to determine which of the statements below is a correct explanation for the student's data.

A. Cup 3 had the same rate of photosynthesis as Cup 1 because they had the same ratio of disks floating to wattage of light.

B. Cup 4 had the slowest rate of photosynthesis because it had the least baking soda.

C. Cup 1 had a low rate of photosynthesis because 0.5 grams of baking soda did not provide a sufficient amount of CO2.

D. Cup 2 had the highest rate of photosynthesis because 5 disks were floating at the end of 10 minutes using a 50 watt light bulb.

B. Cup 4 had the slowest rate of photosynthesis because it had the least baking soda.

8

Some photosynthetic organisms contain chloroplasts that lack photosystem II, yet are able to survive. The best way to detect the lack of photosystem II in these organisms would be to _____.

A. Test for CO2 fixation in the dark

B. Determine if they have thylakoids in the chloroplasts

C. Do experiments to generate an action spectrum

D. Test for liberation of O2 in the light

D. Test for liberation of O2 in the light

9
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The following question refer to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure below. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents either meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

The embryo sac of an angiosperm flower is best represented by which number in the figure above?

A. 3

B. 7

C. 1

D. 11

B. 7

10

Which of the following were probably factors that permitted early plants to successfully colonize land?
1. The relative number of potential predators (herbivores)
2. The relative number of competitors
3. The relative availability of symbiotic partners
4. Air's relative lack of support, compared to water's support

A. 1, 2, and 3

B. 3 and 4

C. 2 and 3

D. 1 and 2

A. 1, 2, and 3

11
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The following question refer to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure below. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents either meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

Which number represents a megaspore mother cell in the figure above?

A. 5

B. 3

C. 7

D. 1

B. 3

12

Which of the following are important components of the long-distance transport process in plants?
I) The cohesion of water molecules
II) A negative water potential
III) The root parenchyma
IV) The active transport of solutes
V) Bulk flow from source to sink

A. I, II, IV, and V

B. I, II, III, and V

C. I, III, IV, and V

D. II, III, IV, and V

A. I, II, IV, and V

13

Some of the largest leaves in the world can be found on plants near the forest floor of dense tropical rain forests. Which of the following precursors for photosynthesis is most likely limited in these large leaves?

A. oxygen

B. glucose

C. light

D. carbon dioxide

C. light

14

The process of photosynthesis probably originated _____.

A. In prokaryotes

B. In plants

C. In fungi

D. Three separate times during evolution

A. prokaryotes

15

Which elements are most often the limiting nutrients for plant growth?

A. carbon, nitrogen, oxygen

B. nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen

C. carbon, sodium, chlorine

D. nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus

D. nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus

16

A plant has the following characteristics: a taproot system, several growth rings evident in a cross section of the stem, and a layer of bark around the outside. Which of the following best describes the plant?

A. Herbaceous eudicot

B. Woody eudicot

C. Herbaceous monocot

D. Woody monocot

B. Woody eudicot

17

CAM plants keep stomata closed in the daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can do this because they _____.

A. Use photosystem I and photosystem II at nightfix

B. CO2 into organic acids during the night

C. Fix CO2 into sugars in the bundle-sheath cells

D. Fix CO2 into pyruvate in the mesophyll cells

B. CO2 into organic acids during the night

18

A plant that grows one year, dies back, and then grows again the following year, produces flowers and then dies would be considered _____.

A. Annual

B. Not very fit

C. Biennial

D. Perennial

A. Annual

19

Arrange the following in the correct sequence, from earliest to most recent, in which these plant traits originated.
1. Sporophyte dominance, gametophyte independence
2. Sporophyte dominance, gametophyte dependence
3. Gametophyte dominance, sporophyte dependence

A. 3 → 2 → 1

B. 1 →? 2 → 3

C. 2 → 1 → 3

D. 3 → 1 → 2

D. 3 → 1 → 2

20

Photorespiration _____.

A. Generates ATP and sugars and consumes oxygen and carbon dioxide

B. Generates oxygen and consumes ATP, carbon dioxide, and sugars

C. Consumes carbon dioxide and generates ATP, sugars, and oxygen

D. Generates carbon dioxide and consumes ATP and oxygen

D. Generates carbon dioxide and consumes ATP and oxygen

21

Which of the following does NOT occur during the Calvin cycle?

A. Oxidation of NADPH

B. Consumption of ATP

C. Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor

D. Release of oxygen

D. Release of oxygen

22

What are the products of linear electron flow?

A. ATP and P700

B. ATP and NADPH

C. ADP and NADP+

D. Heat and fluorescence

B. ATP and NADPH

23
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Select the correct statement about the Calvin cycle.

A. The Calvin cycle takes place primarily in the dark.

B. The basic function of the Calvin cycle is the conversion of solar energy to chemical energy.

C. The Calvin cycle has three phases: carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration of RuBP.

C. The Calvin cycle has three phases: carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration of RuBP.

24

P680+ is said to be the strongest biological oxidizing agent. Given its function, why is this necessary?

A. It transfers its electrons to reduce NADP+ to NADPH.

B. It obtains electrons from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, so it must have a stronger attraction for electrons than oxygen has.

C. It is the molecule that transfers electrons to plastoquinone (Pq) of the electron transfer system.

D. It is the receptor for the most excited electron in either photosystem of photosynthesis.

B. It obtains electrons from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, so it must have a stronger attraction for electrons than oxygen has.

25

A flask containing photosynthetic green algae and a control flask containing water with no algae are both placed under a bank of lights, which are set to cycle between 12 hours of light and 12 hours of dark. The dissolved oxygen concentrations in both flasks are monitored. Predict what the relative dissolved oxygen concentrations will be in the flask with algae compared to the control flask. The dissolved oxygen in the flask with algae will _____.

A. Always be lower

B. Always be higher

C. Be higher in the light, but lower in the dark

D. Be higher in the light, but the same in the dark

C. Be higher in the light, but lower in the dark

26

The following question refer to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure below. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents either meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

In the figure above, meiosis is most likely to be represented by which number(s)?

A. 2

B. 2 and 8

C. 10 and 12

D. 4

D. 4

27

The electrons of photosystem II are excited and transferred to electron carriers. From which molecule or structure do the photosystem II replacement electrons come?

A. Photosystem I

B. Water

C. The electron carrier, plastocyanin

D. Oxygen

B. Water

28

Leaf thickness represents a trade-off between _____.

A. Water retention and oxygen absorption

B. Water retention and carbon dioxide absorption

C. Light collection and carbon dioxide absorption

D. Light collection and oxygen absorption

B. Water retention and carbon dioxide absorption

29

Select the correct statement about plant life cycles.

A. Over evolutionary time, the sporophyte has replaced the gametophyte in plant life cycles.

B. Meiosis in plant life cycles is a sexual process, producing gametes.

C. At some point in the life cycle of all plants, the sporophyte is dependent on its gametophyte parent.

C. At some point in the life cycle of all plants, the sporophyte is dependent on its gametophyte parent.

30
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The following diagram is of a cross section of a plant leaf. Use the diagram to answer the question(s) below.

The main function associated with structure X is _____.

A. Retention of water

B. Collection of light

C. Release of carbon dioxide

D. Absorption of carbon dioxide

A. Retention of water

31

The most direct ancestors of land plants were probably _____.

A. Liverworts and mosses

B. Photosynthesizing prokaryotes (cyanobacteria)

C. Kelp (brown alga) that formed large beds near the shorelines

D. Green algae

D. Green algae

32

A researcher has developed two stains for use with seed plants. One stains sporophyte tissue blue; the other stains gametophyte tissue red. If the researcher exposes pollen grains to both stains, and then rinses away the excess stain, what should occur?

A. The pollen grains will be pure blue.

B. The pollen grains will have red interiors and blue exteriors.

C. The pollen grains will be pure red.

D. The pollen grains will have blue interiors and red exteriors.

B. The pollen grains will have red interiors and blue exteriors.

33

A fellow student brought in a leaf to be examined. The leaf was dark green, thin, had stoma on the lower surface only, and had a total surface area of ten square meters. Where is the most likely environment where this leaf was growing?

A. The floor of a deciduous forest

B. A tropical rain forest

C. A large, still pond

D. An oasis within a grassland

B. A tropical rain forest

34

A major function of magnesium in plants is to be _____.

A. A component of chlorophyll

B. Required to regenerate phosphoenolpyruvate in C4 and CAM plants

C. Active in amino acid formation

D. A component of DNA and RNA

A. A component of chlorophyll

35

Why have biologists hypothesized that the first land plants had a low, sprawling growth habit?

A. The ancestors of land plants, green algae, lack the structural support to stand erect in air.

B. Land animals of that period were small and could not pollinate tall plants.

C. They were tied to the water for reproduction and thus needed to remain in close contact with the moist soil.

D. There was less competition for space so they simply spread out flat.

A. The ancestors of land plants, green algae, lack the structural support to stand erect in air.

36

Which of the following are functions of rhizobacteria?
I) Produce hormones that stimulate plant growth
II) Produce antibiotics that protect roots from disease
III) Absorb toxic metals
IV) Carry out nitrogen fixation

A. I, II, III, and IV

B. Only II and IV

C. Only I, II, and III

D. Only III and IV

A. I, II, III, and IV

37

Which of the following contribute to the surface area available for water absorption from the soil by a plant root system?
I) Root hairs
II) Endodermis
III) Mycorrhizae
IV) Fibrous arrangement of the roots

A. I, II, III, and IV

B. II and III

C. I, III, and IV

D. I, II, and IV

C. I, III, and IV

38

Increasing the number of stomata per unit surface area of a leaf when atmospheric carbon dioxide levels decline is most analogous to a human _____.

A. Putting more red blood cells into circulation when atmospheric oxygen levels decline

B. Breathing more slowly as atmospheric oxygen levels increase

C. Increasing the volume of its lungs when atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase

D. Breathing faster as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase

A. Putting more red blood cells into circulation when atmospheric oxygen levels decline

39

The driving force that pushes the root tip through the soil is primarily _____.

A. Continuous cell division of root cap cells

B. Elongation of cells behind the root apical meristem

C. Continuous cell division just behind the root cap in the center of the apical meristem

D. Continuous cell division in the root cap at the tip of the root

B. Elongation of cells behind the root apical meristem

40

The highest amount of oxygen will be found in soils containing large amounts of _____.

A. Silt

B. Gravel

C. Sand

D. Clay

B. Gravel

41

Which of the following would be LEAST likely to affect osmosis in plants?

A. A difference in water potential

B. Receptor proteins in the membrane

C. A difference in solute concentrations

D. Aquaporins

A. Receptor proteins in the membrane

42

A student examining leaf cross sections under a microscope finds many loosely packed cells with relatively thin cell walls. The cells have numerous chloroplasts. What type of cells are they?

A. Parenchyma

B. Endodermis

C. Collenchyma

D. Sclerenchyma

A. Parenchyma

43

As a research scientist, you measure the amount of ATP and NADPH consumed by the Calvin cycle in 1 hour. You find that 30,000 molecules of ATP were consumed, but only 20,000 molecules of NADPH were consumed. Where did the extra ATP molecules come from?

A. Linear electron flow

B. Photosystem II

C. Cyclic electron flow

D. Photosystem I

C. Cyclic electron flow

44

Which of the following is a correct statement about sugar movement in phloem?

A. Only phloem cells with nuclei can perform sugar movement.

B. Movement can occur both upward and downward in the plant.

C. Diffusion can account for the observed rates of transport.

D. Sugar is translocated from sinks to sources.

B. Movement can occur both upward and downward in the plant.

45

Suppose a plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment and the leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are absorbed by this pigment?

A. Blue, green, and red

B. Red and yellow

C. Blue and violet

D. Green and yellow

C. Blue and violet

46

Which of the following experimental procedures would most likely reduce transpiration while allowing the normal growth of a plant?

A. Subjecting the leaves of the plant to a partial vacuum

B. Decreasing the relative humidity around the plant

C. Putting the plant in drier soil

D. Increasing the level of carbon dioxide around the plant

D. Increasing the level of carbon dioxide around the plant

47

The light reactions of photosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with

A. H2O and NADPH.

B. Light energy.

C. ATP and NADPH.

D. CO2 and ATP.

E. sugar and O2.

C. ATP and NADPH.

48
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The following question refer to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure below. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents either meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

In the figure above, which number represents the mature gametophyte?

A. 11

B. 1

C. 7

D. 3

C. 7

49

Suppose an efficient conducting system evolved in a moss that could transport water and other materials as high as a tall tree. Which of the following statements about "trees" of such a species would be FALSE?

A. Fertilization would probably be more difficult.

B. Individuals would probably compete more effectively for access to light.

C. Females could produce only one archegonium.

D. Spore dispersal distances would probably increase.

C. Females could produce only one archegonium.

50

Which of the following cell types retains the ability to undergo cell division?

A. A parenchyma cell near the root tip

B. A stem fiber

C. A tracheid

D. A functional sieve tube element

A. A parenchyma cell near the root tip

51

Which of the following would inhibit the growth of most plants?

A. Air spaces

B. A pH above 10.0

C. Abundant humus

D. Good drainage

B. A pH above 10.0

52

In the pressure-flow mechanism, loading of sucrose from companion cells to sieve-tube elements takes place through _____.

A. Facilitated diffusion

B. Plasmodesmata

C. Sucrose-H+ symporters

D. Sucrose-H+ antiporters

B. Plasmodesmata

53

Compared to a cell with few aquaporins in its membrane, a cell containing many aquaporins will _____.

A. Have a lower water potential

B. Have a faster rate of active transport

C. Have a higher water potential

D. Have a faster rate of osmosis

D. Have a faster rate of osmosis

54

Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?

A. H2O → NADPH → Calvin cycle

B. NADPH → electron transport chain → O2

C. NADPH → O2 → C O2

D. NADPH → chlorophyll → Calvin cycle

A. H2O → NADPH → Calvin cycle

55

In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics is unique to the seed-producing plants?

A. Sporopollenin

B. Lignin present in cell walls

C. Pollen

D. Megaphylls

C. Pollen

56

The following question refer to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure below. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents either meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

In angiosperms, which number in the figure above represents a component contributing to the formation of endosperm?

A. 7

B. 9

C. 11

D. 1

B. 9

57

What is the function of proton pumps localized in the plant plasma membrane?

A. To transfer metal ions across the plasma membrane

B. To transfer phosphorus groups from ATP to proteins

C. To create a membrane potential

D. To transfer anions across the plasma membrane

C. To create a membrane potential

58

Trichomes _____.

A. Repel or trap insects

B. Increase water loss from leaves

C. Open and close for gas exchange

D. Absorb sunlight, increasing the temperature of leaves

A. Repel or trap insects

59

Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?

A. Cellular respiration is unique to heterotrophs.

B .Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic.

C. Only heterotrophs have mitochondria.

D. Only heterotrophs require oxygen.

B. Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other nutrients that are inorganic.

60

Loss of water from the aerial parts of plants is called _____.

A. Transpiration

B. Gas exchange

C. Dehydration

D. Respiration

A. Transpiration

61
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Use the following figure to answer the questions below.

The figure shows the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a and the action spectrum for photosynthesis. Why are they different?

A. Oxygen given off during photosynthesis interferes with the absorption of light.

B. Aerobic bacteria take up oxygen, which changes the measurement of the rate of photosynthesis.

C. Green and yellow wavelengths inhibit the absorption of red and blue wavelengths.

D. Other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a.

D. Other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a.

62

Which of the following are water-conducting cells that are dead at functional maturity?

A. Collenchyma cells

B. Parenchyma cells

C. Tracheids and vessel elements

D. Sieve-tube elements

C. Tracheids and vessel elements

63

Which of the following is true of the life cycle of mosses?

A. Antheridia and archegonia are produced by gametophytes.

B. The sporophyte generation is dominant.

C. The haploid generation grows on the sporophyte generation.

D. Spores are primarily distributed by water currents.

A. Antheridia and archegonia are produced by gametophytes.

64

Which structure is correctly paired with its tissue system?

A. Guard cell – vascular tissue

B. Companion cell – ground tissue

C. Tracheid – vascular tissue

D. Root hair – vascular tissue

C. Tracheid – vascular tissue