Digestive System - Lecture

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1

The active protein-digesting enzyme found in the stomach is:

Pepsin

2

The inactive form of the protein-digesting enzyme found in the stomach is

Pepsinogen

3

_______ activates the inactive form of the protein-digesting enzyme found in the stomach.

HCl

(Hydrochloric Acid)

4

The enzyme found on the brush border of the small intestine that activates an inactive protein-digesting enzyme is

Enterokinase

5

The active protein-digesting enzyme that is activated by the enzyme found on the brush border of the small intestine is

Trypsin

6

The inactive form of the protein-digesting enzyme that is activated by the enzyme found on the brush border of the small intestine is

Trypsinogen

7

In the small intestine, one enzyme activates two inactive protein-digesting enzymes. Name those two inactive protein-digesting enzymes

Chymotrypsinogen

Procarboxypeptidase

8

In the small intestine, one enzyme activates two inactive protein-digesting enzymes. Name the ACTIVE forms of those two inactive protein-digesting enzymes

Chymotrypsin

Carboxypeptidase

9

In the small intestine, one enzyme activates two inactive protein-digesting enzymes. Name the enzyme that activates those two inactive protein-digesting enzymes

Trypsin

10

In the stomach, ____ actives _____, turning it to ______

HCl

Pepsinogen

Pepsin

11

In the brush border of the small intestine, _____ activate _____, turning it to _____

Enterokinase enzymes

Trypsinogen

Trypsin

12

In the small intestine, ______ activates ______ and _______, turning them to _______ and ______

Trypsin

Chymotrypsinogen and Procarboxypeptidase

Chymotrypsin and Carboxypeptidase

13

The “food” as it passes from the stomach to the small intestines is

Chyme

14

The “food” as it passes from the mouth to the stomach is a

Bolus

15

The “food” as it passes from the anus is

Feces

16

Digestion begins in the stomach

TRUE OR FALSE

FALSE

Digestion begins in the mouth

17

The villi are finger-like projections in the small intestine that increase the surface area for nutrient absorption.

TRUE OR FALSE

TRUE

18

The parotid salivary gland secretes lingual lipase to begin the breakdown of fats.

TRUE OR FALSE

FALSE

19

The internal anal sphincter is under conscious control while the external anal sphincter is not.

TRUE OR FALSE

FALSE

The internal anal sphincter is under UNCONSCIOUS control. The external anal sphincter is under conscious control.

20

The liver has first pick of the nutrients absorbed by the blood coming from the small intestine.

TRUE OR FALSE

TRUE

21

The stomach absorbs aspirin and alcohol, but not much else.

TRUE OR FALSE

FALSE

The stomach absorbs asprin and some lipid-soluble drugs, not alcohol

22

Metabolism depends on the function of enzymes, and enzymes are very sensitive to pH

TRUE OR FALSE

TRUE

23

What structures make up the alimentary canal?

Mouth

Pharynx

Esophagus

Stomach

Small intestine

Large intestine

Rectum

Anus

24

Functions of the colon:

Electrolyte absorption

Water absorption

Vitamin synthesis

Fecal storage

25

What structures make up the accessory organs of the digestive system?

Salivary glands

Liver

Gall Bladder

Pancreas

26

The alimentary canal is lined with ______

Mucous membranes

27

The sequence of layers of the alimentary canal inferior to the diaphragm from deep to superficial are…

Serosa

Muscularis

Submucosa

Mucosa

28

Which layer of the alimentary canal is highly vascularized and innervated?

Submucosa

29

Which digestive structure has three layers of muscle tissue?

Stomach

30

Two sugar molecules bonded together are called…

Disaccharides

31

The substrate for amylase is…

Starch

32

Which protein digesting enzyme is a pancreatic secretion?

Trypsinogen

33

Which enzyme converts DNA & RNA into one of five nucleotides?

Nucleases

34

The surface area for absorption in the small intestine is approximately equal to:

1 tennis court

35

Name the regions of the stomach

Cardiac

Fundus

Body

Pylorus

36

Ingestion

Tasting and taking food into mouth

37

Mastication

Chewing/salivating food in mouth

38

Deglutition

Swallowing food

39

Digestion

Converting food into simpler organic compounds (nutrients)

40

Absorption

When nutrients leave the alimentary canal and move inside into the blood

This is when food actually becomes part of your body

41

Defecation

Elimination of waste products from alimentary canal

42

Eructation

Burping

43

Flatulate

Pass gass

44

What are the three requirements for enzymes?

1. Correct pH

2. Correct temp.

3. Correct substrate

45

______ convert disaccharides into monosaccharides

Disacharidases

46

______ fuel for mitochondria to produce ATP for energy

Glucose

47

Lipid digestion is performed mostly by ______ and ______

Bile salts

Lipases

48

Define:

1. Sympathetic digestive response

2. Parasympathetic digestive response

1. Decreased digestive activity/efficiency

2. Increased digestive activity/efficiency (normal/digesting branch of autonomic nervous system)

49

Roof of mouth

palate

50

Fauces

Opening from mouth to throat

Contain palatine tonsils

51

Regions of the tooth:

Upper - Crown

Middle - Neck

Lower - Root/Periodontal ligaments

52

Layers of the tooth

Inner - Pulp

Middle - Dentin

Outer - Enamel

53

List the three external salivary glands

Parotid

Submandibular

Sublingual

54

Functions of saliva

1. Clean mouth with lysozyme and IgA

2. Moisten/bind food via mucus

3. Begin starch digestion

4. Contain electrolytes

55

Mumps

Viral infection of parotid salivary glands with swelling and pain

56

The mucous cells in the stomach secret alkaline mucous, which prevents ______

Self digestion

57

The chief cells in the stomach secrete ______

Pepsinogen

58

The parietal cells in the stomach secrete ____

HCl

59

The enteroendocrine cells secrete ____ affecting digestive organs

Hormones

60

List the 3 regions of the small intestine:

1. Doudenum

2. Jejunum

3. Ileum

61

Intestinal glands that secrete "intestinal juices"

Crypts of Lieberkuhn

62

Hepatic Portal System

Connects capillaries of intestines and other digestive organs to the liver

63

Aciner cells secret ______ juices, which include HCO3- and digestive enzymes

Pancreatic

64

A sac containing bile

Gall bladder

65

List the parts of the colon and where they are located

1. Ascending (begins at iliocecal valve and ends at hepatic flexure)

2. Transverse (begins at hepatic flexure and ends at splenic flexure)

3. Descending (begins at splenic flexure and ends at sigmoid colon)

4. Sigmoid (s-shaped terminal curve going to rectum)

66

How much did Elvis' colon weigh?

60 lbs

67

How many ATP's can one glucose molecule produce without the presence of oxygen?

2

68

Where does aerobic fermentation take place?

In the cytoplasm

69

Where does Cellular Respiration take place?

The mitochondria

70

How many ATP are produced per each glucose molecule with the presence of oxygen?

38

71

How many ATP, NADH, FADH, H20 and CO2 molecules are produced during the Kreb's cycle per one gluclose?

ATP X2

NADH X8 (plus 2)

FADH X2

H20 X2

CO2 X2

72

Each NADH is worth __ ATP. Therefore, the ___ NADH produce ____ ATP.

3

10

30

73

Each FADH is worth __ ATP. Therefore, the ___ FADH produce ___ ATP.

2

2

4

74

Total number of ATP produced before ETC:

2