Chapter 12, Industry and the North, 1790's-1840's

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1

Among the primary reasons that young farm women moved from the farm to work in textile mill towns in the early 19th century was:

D) To escape farm life and earn wages

2

The history of Lowell epitomizes this transition:

E) Self-sufficient farm families to urban wageworkers.

3

Which one of the following is NOT a traditional 18th century work habit?

A) Work in or near the home

B) A barter and mutual obligations system

C)Fixed production work schedule

D) Slow task oriented pace

E) Family apprenticeship system

C)Fixed production work schedule

4

In the pre-industrial system, a boy who wanted to learn a trade:

A) Entered a formal apprenticeship system

5

The organization of a family business in the pre-industrial era was:

E) Patriarchal

6

Duncan Phyfe and Stephen Allen are both examples of artisans who:

D) Became wealthy and upset the social order

7

If you live in Boston or Philadelphia from 1790-1807, and had accumulated tremendous amounts of capital, it was probably from:

E) International shipping

8

As an early 1800's Cincinnati merchant, you were most likely to be financing:

C) Steamboat construction

9

A crucial aspect of the new putting-out system was:

E) Division of labor

10

Which of the following has the LEAST in common with the other four?

A) Central workshops

B) Per-piece wages

C) Putting-out system

D) Artisan tradition

E) Merchant capitalists

D) Artisan tradition

11

Which of the following was NOT a consequence of the putting-out system?

A) Merchant capitalists controlled production

B) Merchants thought in terms of national markets

C) Business owners controlled workers

D) Apprenticing became more important

E) Loss of independence for artisans

D) Apprenticing became more important

12

From the point of view of this group, the putting-out system seemed particularly beneficial.

Farm families

13

The states of the old Northwest were largely settled by migrants from:

D) New England

14

Which of the following has LEAST in common with the other four?

A) Slater's Mill

B) Industrial spying

C) Moses Brown

D) William Almy

E) Interchangeable parts

E) Interchangeable parts

15

The Lowell mills employed primarily:

B) Women and children

16

Francis Cabot Lowell and Paul Moody changed textile manufacturing with their invention of:

A) A power loom

17

Which of the following was NOT true of family mills?

A) Children made up to 50% of workers

B)More than one worker per family was usually necessary

C) Almost 50% of the work force left each year

D) Rural farming communities welcomed mill communities

E) The economic benefits to the community were considerable

D) Rural farming communities welcomed mill communities

18

The British dubbed this "American system of manufactures":

C) Interchangeable parts

19

Under the impact of industrialization, the proportion of wage laborers in the United States had risen from 12% in 1800 to THIS % in 1860:

C) 40%

20

The breakdown of the family work system may have had a liberating effect on:

E) Farm women and children

21

Women were often pushed into this occupation because others were considered inappropriate:

E) Garment trade

22

The work style changes that occurred as factory production transformed the American economy included:

B) The regulation of work lives by bells and clocks

23

The term "free" labor originally referred to the:

A) Right to move to another job

24

Many of the first strikes in American labor history were led by:

D) Rural women workers

25

One of the key goals of early unions likje the New England Female Labor Reform association was to have:

B) A ten-hour day

26

Lowell chapter leader Sarah Bagley defied convention not only by being a union leader, but also by:

B) Directly addressing her state legislature

27

When women workers refused to work after dark and petitioned their legislature, this state became the first to pass a ten-hour day law:

E) New Hampshire

28

The major transformation in social order due to market revolution came in the lives of the:

D) Middling sort

29

Due to the market revolution, male children of artisans and farmers were more likely to be:

A) White collar workers

30

Which one of the following was NOT one of the expected attitudes and habits of the new economic order?

A) Employer-worker closeness

B) Hard work

C) Steadiness and sobriety

D) Responsibility

E) The discouragement of employee spontaneity

A) Employer-worker closeness

31

The religion that captured the attention of the new middle class in the early 1800's:

D) Incorporated an enthusiastic evangelistic approach to religious practice

32

Charles and Lydia Finney were examples of the significance of this in the market revolution:

E) religious response to changing economic conditions

33

In the middle-class industrial household, "home" became:

A haven for leisure and relaxation

34

Catherine Beecher's book Treatsie on Domestic Economy illustrated the need for:

A) Helping middle-class women modernize their tasks and family role

35

The unsettling demands of the new industrial order forced changes in middle-class family life that resulted in:

C) Fewer children in the average household

36

The core of sentimentalism of the urban middle class developed from :

B) Nostalgia for imagined pre-industrial village security

37

In his Walden, Henry David Thoreau

E) Questioned the spiritual cost of the market revolution

38

Domestic sources of capital for emergent American industry, in the early 19th century, included:

A) family connections

B) Southern cotton interests

C) local banks

D) large merchant interests

E) all of the above

E) All of the above

39

Canals and railroads:

A) spurred the development of towns and cities along their route.

40

After the opening of the Erie Canal, the production of homespun clothing New York:

E) Declined rapidly

41

Which mode of transportation had the most dramatic impact on American economic life by 1850?

D) the railroad

42

Beneficiaries of the putting-out system included:

A) traditional artisans

B) area merchants

C) farmers

D) B and C

E) all of the above

D) B and C (area merchants and farmers)

43

This individual left England illegally and brought his cotton spinning machine construction skills to the United States.

E) Samuel Slater

44

While Eli Whitney's role in developing the cotton gin is well known, he was also a pioneer in:

C) interchangeable parts

45

There were many difficulties for workers unaccustomed to factory work, but one they liked least and had the most trouble getting used to was:

D) keeping to a precise time table

46

Disdaining the mill workers for their poverty and transcience, rural community people called them:

A) operatives

47

You are an enterprising merchant in Cincinnati in 1816 with capital to invest. You are most likely to invest it successfully in:

Steamboat industry

48

Which one of the following is NOT one of the ways middle-class couples were likely to use to limit family size?

A) Condoms

B) Abstinence

C) Infrequent sexual activity

D) Coitus interruptus

E)Rhythm method

A) Condoms

49

Which of the following was NOT likely to be a topic of women's sentimental novels in the early 1800's?

A) Religious feeling

B) Romantic love

C) Coping with difficulty

D) Caring family life

E) Protest against the competitive world

A) religious feeling

50

"I become a transparent eyeball; I am nothing; I see all." Which of the following writers is most identified with this perspective?

C) Ralph Waldo Emerson

51

The Embargo Act of _______ banning British manufacturers had a positive effect on American manufacturing.

E)1807

52

In 1798, Eli Whitney contracts with the government for:

Production rifles with interchangeable parts

53

The first productive tariff in the United States is passed in ______.

C) 1816

54

Nationally, the proportion of wage laborers rose from 12% in 1800 to 40% in 1860. The majority were:

E) In new England

55

Which one of the following is the CORRECT chronological order of events?

1) Cotton gin invented

2) Slater's first textile mill opens

3) New England Female Labor Reform Association formed

4) Lowell builds his cotton textile factory

E) 2,1,4,3

Slater's textile mill opens, Cotton gin invented, Lowell builds his cotton textile factory, New England Female Labor Reform Association formed

56

Charles G. Finney revivals are held in Rochester in _____.

C) 1830

57

While many states had cotton mills, the region with the greatest concentration of mills by 1839 was:

E) New England