MOR 335 - Embalming I - Lesson 2.1 - Chemistry of Embalming

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DMACC Mortuary Science Ankeny, IA
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1

Alloy

A mixture of two or more metals.

2

Amphoteric

A compound that can act as both an acid and a base in a solution.

3

Aromatic (aka Cyclic) compound

Any compound containing a resonance-stabilized ring such as benzene or toluene.

4

Aqueous solution

A solution in which water is the solvent.

5

Autolysis

Self-destruction of cells; decomposition of all tissues by enzymes of their own formation without microbial assistance.assistance.

6

Bilirubin

A pigment produced by the liver that is excreted in bile which causes a yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes when it accumulates in those organs.

7

Biliverdin

A green bile pigment formed by the oxidation of bilirubin by formaldehyde; can create a permanent green discoloration in the skin.

8

Coagulate

A solid form of protein; a new compound created by the reaction between formaldehyde and protein; this compound is more resistant to decomposition.

9

Colloidal solution

A solution-like system in which the size of the solute particle is between 1 and 100 nanometers; particles of solute pass through filters but NOT membranes.

10

Concentrated solution

A solution containing a relatively large amount of solute.

11

Crenation

The shrinking of red blood cells when placed in a hypertonic solution; or, the process of plasmolysis when applied to a red blood cell.

12

Crystalloidal solution

A solution-like system in which the size of the solute particle is less than 1 nanometer; particles of solute pass through filters AND membranes.

13

Dialysis

Separation of substances in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable, membrane.

14

Diffusion

The movement of molecules or other particles in solution from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration until uniform concentration is reached.

15

Dilute solution

A solution containing a relatively small amount of solute.

16

Electrolytic solution

A solution containing solutes capable of conducting electricity.

17

Emulsion

A mixture of two insoluble liquids, one being dispersed throughout the other in small droplets.

18

Enzyme

An organic catalyst produced by living cells and capable of autolytic decomposition.

19

Formaldehyde (HCHO)

Colorless, strong-smelling gas that when used in solution is a powerful preservative and disinfectant; a potential occupational carcinogen; often abbreviated HCHO (line formula)

20

Formalin

A liquid mixture of formaldehyde and water; 37% formaldehyde by weight and 40% formaldehyde by volume.

21

Functional group

A specific atom or group of atoms that is attached to a carbon atom in an organic compound and that imparts an identifiable chemical behavior to the compound.

22

Hydroxyl group

A univalent radical and the functional group of the basic compounds in inorganic chemistry and the alcohols in organic chemistry.

23

Hygroscopic

Absorbing moisture readily.

24

Hypertonic solution

A solution having a greater concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared.

25

Hypotonic solution

A solution having a lesser concentration of dissolved solute than the solution to which it is compared.

26

Immiscible solution

A solution of two mutually insoluble liquids.

27

Index

The strength of arterial fluids indicated by the number of grams of pure formaldehyde gas dissolved in 100 ml of water. Index usually refers to a percentage.

28

Inorganic chemistry

That branch of chemistry that studies the properties and reactions of elements, excluding organic or certain carbon-containing compounds.

29

Isotonic solution

A solution having an equal concentration of dissolved solute to that of a standard of reference.

30

Methylene glycol

Liquid compound form of formaldehyde; formed when water and formaldehyde react; different from formalin, which is simply a physical mixture.

31

Miscible solution

A solution of two mutually soluble liquids.

32

Mixture

A combination of two or more substances not chemically united and in no definite proportion by mass.

33

Non-electrolyte solution

A solution containing solutes incapable of conducting electricity.

34

Organic chemistry

That branch of chemistry that deals with certain carbon containing compounds.

35

Osmosis

The passage of solvent from a solution of lesser to one of greater solute concentration when the two solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane.

36

Osmotic pressure

The force being exerted by the dilute solution against the concentrated solution during osmosis.

37

Paraformaldehyde

The solid (powder) form of formaldehyde.

38

Percentage

The number of grams of a solute in one hundred grams of solution; when the solute is formaldehyde, the percentage is referred to as index.

39

Polymerization

The linking together of monomer or basic chemical units to form a polymer molecule; e.g. the linking of HCHO molecules to form paraformaldehyde.

40

Protein

Organic compound found in plants and animals; can be broken down into amino acids.

41

Proteolysis

Decomposition of proteins.

42

Putrefaction

Decomposition of proteins by the action of enzymes from anaerobic bacteria.

43

Ratio

A comparison between the number of parts of the solute and total number of parts in the solution (solute + solvent).

44

Saturated solution

A solution containing all of the solute the solvent is able to hold at a certain temperature and pressure.

45

Solubility

The measure of how well two substances mix; or, the amount of solute needed to produce a saturated solution in a given amount of solvent.

46

Soluble

Term that describes a solute that can be readily dissolved by or absorbed into a solvent.

47

Solute

The substance that is dissolved in a solution.

48

Solution

A homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (solutes) dissolved in a sufficient quantity of solvent.

49

Solvation

The process of forming a solution or the process of dissolving.

50

Solvent

A substance that does the dissolving in a solution; the component of a solution present in the greater amount; a liquid holding another substance in solution.

51

Supersaturated solution

A solution containing more solute than it could normally hold under ordinary circumstances (i.e. normal pressure and temperature).

52

Suspension

An inorganic mixture of a solute and a solvent in which the size of the solute particles is greater than 100 nanometers; particles of solute do NOT pass through filters OR membranes.

53

Tincture

A solution in which alcohol is the solvent.

54

Ultra-filtration

The use of pressure to force colloidal products across/through the cell membrane.

55

Unsaturated solution

A solution containing less of the solute than can be held in solution by the solvent.

56

Urotropin

A compound formed when formaldehyde reacts with ammonia; this reaction neutralizes the formaldehyde and creates a risk of under-embalming.

57

Vehicle

Liquid that serves as a solvent for the numerous ingredients that are incorporated into embalming fluids.