Human Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 11 - Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Flashcards


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1

Information gathered by sensory receptors about internal and external changes

sensory input

2

Processing and interpretation of sensory input

integration

3

activation of effector organs which produces a response

motor output

4

What are the effector organs?

muscles and glands

5

What is comprised of the brain and spinal cord, and is the integration and control center?

central nervous system

6

What system interprets sensory input and dictates motor output

central nervous system

7

What portion of the nervous system consists mainly of nerves?

peripheral nervous system

8

What types of nerves make up the PNS?

spinal and cranial

9

How many pairs of spinal nerves are in the PNS?

31

10

How many cranial nerves are in the PNS?

12

11

What are the function divisions of the PNS?

sensory and motor

12

Which division of the PNS is afferent?

sensory

13

Which division of the PNS is efferent?

motor

14

Which fibers in the PNS sensory (afferent) division convey impulses from skin, skeletal muscles, and joints to the CNS?

somatic sensory fibers

15

What fibers in the PNS sensory (afferent) division convey impulses from visceral organs to CNS?

visceral sensory fibers

16

What division of the PNS receives and sends towards the CNS?

afferent

17

Which division of the PNS moves from the CNS to muscles or glands?

efferent

18

Which division of the PNS transmit impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands?

efferent/motor

19

What are the divisions of the motor (efferent) division of the PNS?

somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

20

Which motor division of the PNS conducts impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles?

somatic nervous system

21

Which motor division of the PNS has visceral motor nerve fibers and regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands?

autonomic nervous system

22

What are the functional subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system?

sympathetic and parasympathetic

23

What is the fight or flight subdivision of the autonomic nervous system?

sympathetic

24

What is the rest and repose division of the autonomic nervous system?

parasympathetic

25

What are the main cell types in nervous tissue?

neuroglia and neurons (nerve cells)

26

What are the small cells in nervous tissue that surround and wrap delicate neurons?

neuroglia

27

What are excitable cells in nervous tissue that transmit electrical signals

neurons (nerve cells)

28

Which neuroglia pulls capillaries into the neuron to feed it, providing nutrition and oxygen, and gets rid of waste?

astrocytes

29

Which neuroglia protects the neuron - can transform to phagocytize micoorganisms and debris?

microglial cells

30

Which neuroglia range in shape from columnar to squamous, may be ciliated, and synthesize cerebrospinal fluid?

ependymal cells

31

Which neuroglia are branched cells that mylenate axons - wraps the axon with a myelin sheath?

oligodendrocytes

32

Which cells found in the PNS function similar to astrocytes by surrounding neuron cell bodies?

satellite cells

33

Which cells in the PNS are similar to oligodendrocytes by surrounding the nerve fibers and forming myelin sheaths?

Schwann cells

34

What helps improve and increase the speed of the electrical impulse along the axon?

myelin sheaths

35

What are the structural units of the nervous system; large specialized cells that conduct impulses?

neurons

36

What part of the neuron is the center - synthesizes proteins, membranes and other chemicals - integrates and interprets messages?

Neuron cell body (Perikaryon or Soma)

37

What are clusters of neuron cell bodies in the CNS?

nuclei

38

What lie along nerves in the PNS?

ganglia

39

What are armlike processes that extend from the neuron cell body?

neuron processes

40

What are bundles of neuron processes (axons) in the CNS?

tracts

41

What are bundles of neuron processes (axons) in PNS?

nerves

42

What are the types of neuron processes?

dendrites and axons

43

What neuron process in motor neurons collects information, and is the receptive region of the neuron?

dendrites

44

One axon per cell arises from the what?

axon hillock

45

What are the distal endings of the axon called?

axon terminals

46

What is the neuron cell membrane?

axolemma

47

What type of movement along the axon travels away from the cell body? (such as mitochondria, enzymes, membrane components)

anterograde

48

What type of movement along the axon goes toward the cell body? (such as viruses, signal molecules, bacterial toxins)

retrograde

49

What is the white-ish, protein-lipoid substance?

myelin

50

What are the functions of myelin?

protects and electrically insulates the axon, increases the speed of nerve impulse transmission

51

Myelination in the PNS is formed by what?

Schwann cells

52

What are the regions of the brain and spinal cord with dense collections of myelinated fibers?

white matter

53

What is mostly neuron cell bodies and nonmyelinated fibers

gray matter

54

What are the structural classifications of neurons?

multipolar, bipolar, unipolar

55

What are the functional classifications of neurons?

sensory, motor, interneurons

56

Which functional classification of neurons transmit impulses toward the CNS, and are almost all unipolar?

sensory

57

Which functional classification of neurons carry impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands, and are multipolar?

motor

58

Which functional classification of neurons shuttle signals through CNS pathways, lie between other neurons, comprise 99% of the body's neurons and are most confined in the CNS?

interneurons

59

What is a measure of potential energy generated by a separated charge?

voltage

60

What is the flow of electrical charge (ions) between two points?

current

61

What is the hindrance to charge flow?

resistance

62

What is the substance with high electrical resistance?

insulator

63

What is the substance with low electrical resistance?

conductor

64

What are the types of ion channels?

leakage (non gated) and gated

65

Which type of channel is always open?

leakage (nongated)

66

What type of channel involves part of the protein changing shape to open/close the channel?

gated

67

Which type of gated channel open with binding of a specific neurotransmitter?

chemically gated

68

Which type of gated channel opens and closes in response to changes in membrane potential?

voltage gated

69

Which type of gated channel opens and closes in response to physical deformation of receptors (like sensory receptors)?

mechanically gated channels

70

What is the potential difference across the membrane of a resting cell?

resting membrane potential

71

Is the resting membrane polarized or depolarized?

polarized

72

The cell is ________ when more sodium is outside and more potassium is inside.

polarized

73

What is the decrease in membrane potential, wherein the inside of the membrane becomes less negative, and the probability of producing a nerve impulse increases?

depolarization

74

What is an increase in membrane potential, wherein the inside of the cell is more negative, and the probability of producing a nerve impulse is reduced?

hyperpolarization

75

For an axon to "fire" depolarization must reach what?

threshold

76

What is the voltage at which the action potential is triggered?

threshold

77

What is the fact that an AP either happens completely, or it doesn't happen at all?

all or none phenomenon