Information gathered by sensory receptors about internal and external changes
Processing and interpretation of sensory input
activation of effector organs which produces a response
What are the effector organs?
muscles and glands
What is comprised of the brain and spinal cord, and is the integration and control center?
central nervous system
What system interprets sensory input and dictates motor output
central nervous system
What portion of the nervous system consists mainly of nerves?
peripheral nervous system
What types of nerves make up the PNS?
spinal and cranial
How many pairs of spinal nerves are in the PNS?
How many cranial nerves are in the PNS?
What are the function divisions of the PNS?
sensory and motor
Which division of the PNS is afferent?
Which division of the PNS is efferent?
Which fibers in the PNS sensory (afferent) division convey impulses from skin, skeletal muscles, and joints to the CNS?
somatic sensory fibers
What fibers in the PNS sensory (afferent) division convey impulses from visceral organs to CNS?
visceral sensory fibers
What division of the PNS receives and sends towards the CNS?
Which division of the PNS moves from the CNS to muscles or glands?
Which division of the PNS transmit impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands?
What are the divisions of the motor (efferent) division of the PNS?
somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
Which motor division of the PNS conducts impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles?
somatic nervous system
Which motor division of the PNS has visceral motor nerve fibers and regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands?
autonomic nervous system
What are the functional subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system?
sympathetic and parasympathetic
What is the fight or flight subdivision of the autonomic nervous system?
What is the rest and repose division of the autonomic nervous system?
What are the main cell types in nervous tissue?
neuroglia and neurons (nerve cells)
What are the small cells in nervous tissue that surround and wrap delicate neurons?
What are excitable cells in nervous tissue that transmit electrical signals
neurons (nerve cells)
Which neuroglia pulls capillaries into the neuron to feed it, providing nutrition and oxygen, and gets rid of waste?
Which neuroglia protects the neuron - can transform to phagocytize micoorganisms and debris?
Which neuroglia range in shape from columnar to squamous, may be ciliated, and synthesize cerebrospinal fluid?
Which neuroglia are branched cells that mylenate axons - wraps the axon with a myelin sheath?
Which cells found in the PNS function similar to astrocytes by surrounding neuron cell bodies?
Which cells in the PNS are similar to oligodendrocytes by surrounding the nerve fibers and forming myelin sheaths?
What helps improve and increase the speed of the electrical impulse along the axon?
What are the structural units of the nervous system; large specialized cells that conduct impulses?
What part of the neuron is the center - synthesizes proteins, membranes and other chemicals - integrates and interprets messages?
Neuron cell body (Perikaryon or Soma)
What are clusters of neuron cell bodies in the CNS?
What lie along nerves in the PNS?
What are armlike processes that extend from the neuron cell body?
What are bundles of neuron processes (axons) in the CNS?
What are bundles of neuron processes (axons) in PNS?
What are the types of neuron processes?
dendrites and axons
What neuron process in motor neurons collects information, and is the receptive region of the neuron?
One axon per cell arises from the what?
What are the distal endings of the axon called?
What is the neuron cell membrane?
What type of movement along the axon travels away from the cell body? (such as mitochondria, enzymes, membrane components)
What type of movement along the axon goes toward the cell body? (such as viruses, signal molecules, bacterial toxins)
What is the white-ish, protein-lipoid substance?
What are the functions of myelin?
protects and electrically insulates the axon, increases the speed of nerve impulse transmission
Myelination in the PNS is formed by what?
What are the regions of the brain and spinal cord with dense collections of myelinated fibers?
What is mostly neuron cell bodies and nonmyelinated fibers
What are the structural classifications of neurons?
multipolar, bipolar, unipolar
What are the functional classifications of neurons?
sensory, motor, interneurons
Which functional classification of neurons transmit impulses toward the CNS, and are almost all unipolar?
Which functional classification of neurons carry impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands, and are multipolar?
Which functional classification of neurons shuttle signals through CNS pathways, lie between other neurons, comprise 99% of the body's neurons and are most confined in the CNS?
What is a measure of potential energy generated by a separated charge?
What is the flow of electrical charge (ions) between two points?
What is the hindrance to charge flow?
What is the substance with high electrical resistance?
What is the substance with low electrical resistance?
What are the types of ion channels?
leakage (non gated) and gated
Which type of channel is always open?
What type of channel involves part of the protein changing shape to open/close the channel?
Which type of gated channel open with binding of a specific neurotransmitter?
Which type of gated channel opens and closes in response to changes in membrane potential?
Which type of gated channel opens and closes in response to physical deformation of receptors (like sensory receptors)?
mechanically gated channels
What is the potential difference across the membrane of a resting cell?
resting membrane potential
Is the resting membrane polarized or depolarized?
The cell is ________ when more sodium is outside and more potassium is inside.
What is the decrease in membrane potential, wherein the inside of the membrane becomes less negative, and the probability of producing a nerve impulse increases?
What is an increase in membrane potential, wherein the inside of the cell is more negative, and the probability of producing a nerve impulse is reduced?
For an axon to "fire" depolarization must reach what?
What is the voltage at which the action potential is triggered?
What is the fact that an AP either happens completely, or it doesn't happen at all?
all or none phenomenon