Sociology

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definitions from the book for chapters 8-10
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1

social stratification

is the creation of layers of a population who possess unequal shares of scarce desirables, the most important of which are income, wealth, power, and prestige.

2

social class

each of the layers is a ------- a segment of the population whose members hold a relatively similar share of scarce desirables and who share values, norms, and an identifiable lifestyle

3

bourgeoisie

those who owned the capital (the means of production) ----- would be the rulers

4

proletariat

those who worked for wages the ------ would be the ruled

5

life chances

the likelihood of securing the "good things in life" such as housing, education, good health, and food.

6

income

the amount of money received (within a given time period) by an individual or a group

7

wealth

refers to all the economic resources possessed by an individual or a group

8

power

is the ability to control the behavior of others, even against their will

9

prestige

a third dimension of social stratification is ------- recognition, respect, and admiration attached to social positions

10

conspicuous consumption

people with sufficient economic resources may use their wealth to enhance their prestige; they may consume goods, and services to display thier wealth to others

11

false consciousness

to refer to working class acceptance of the dominant ideology (even though ideology worked against working-class interests)

12

class consciousness

a sense of identification with the goals and interests of the members of ones own social class

13

working poor

about 13% of the population- consist of people employed in low-skill jobs with the lowest pay

14

underclass

(about 12 %) is composed of people who are usually unemployed and who come from families with a history of unemployment

15

absolute poverty

the absence of enough money to secure lifes necessities

16

relative poverty

is measured by comparing the economic condition of those at the bottom of a society with that of other strata

17

feminization of poverty

between 1960 and today women and children make up a larger proportion of the poor

18

life chances

refers to the likelihood of possessing the good things in life, health, happiness, education, wealth, legal protection and even life itself

19

liifestyle

refers to social class differences in patterns of living in areas like education, marital and family relations, child rearing, political attitudes and behavior and religious affiliation

20

social mobility

refers to the movement of individuals or groups within a stratification structure

21

intragenerational mobility

intergenerational mobility

social mobility can be horizontal or vertical. both types of mobility can be measured either within a career of an individual

22

horizontal mobility

a change from one occupation to another at the same general status level is called

23

vertical mobility

occupational status or social class moves upward or downward----- can also be ---- or -----. simplest way to measure these is to compare an individuals present occupation with their first one

24

caste system

there is no social mobility because social status in inherited and cannot be changed

25

structural mobility

this type of --- mobility which occurs because of changes in the distribution of occupational opportunities

26

dependency theory

in common with conflict theory, post modernists attribute persistent poverty in low-income countries to continued exploitation, domination, and manipulation by high-income countries.

27

minority

a people who possess some distinctive physical or cultural characteristics, are dominated by the majority and are denied equal treatment

28

race

is a category of people who allegedly share certain biologically inherited physical characteristics that are considered socially important within a soicety

29

racism

connects biological differences with judgments of innate superiority or inferiority

30

ethnic minority

we identify socially an ---- by its unique characteristics related to culture or nationality

31

assimilation

involves "those processes whereby groups with distinctive identities become culturally and socially fused together"

32

de jure subjugation

as in the segregation of african americans following reconstruction in the us or in the former apartheid system of law in s africa

33

de facto subjugation

...

34

prejudice

refers to a widely held preconceptions of a group (minority or majority) and its individual members--- refers to biased attitudes

35

discrimination

refers to unequal treatment

36

stereotype

is a set of ideas based on distortion, exaggeration, and oversimplification and applied to all members of a social category

37

hate crimes

criminal acts motivated by prejudice

38

scapegoats

serve as convenient and less feared targets on which to place the blame for ones own troubles, frustrations, failures or sense of guilt

39

authoritarian personality

that tends to be more prejudiced than other types. the ----- is characterized by excessive conformity; submissiveness to authority figures; inflexibility; repression of impulses; desires, and ideas; fearfulness; and arrogance toward persons or groups thought to be inferior

40

self-fulfilling prophecy

when the expectation leads to behavior that then causes the expectation to become a reality

41

institutionalized discrimination

this type of discrimination is the result of unfair practices that are part of the structure of society and have grown out of traditionally accepted behaviors

42

direct institutionalized discrimination

refers to organization or community actions intended to deprive a racial or ethnic minority of its rights

43

indirect institutionalized discrimination

refers to unintentional behavior that negatively affects a minority

44

internal colonialism

domestic colonialism, refers to the domination of oppression of one group by another group within the same society

45

hidden unemployment

discouraged workers who have stopped looking or part-time workers who would prefer full-time jobs

46

underclass

a permanently poor trapped in inner-city ghettos

47

racial profiling

the us justice department defines------ as police action based on personal characteristics (race, religion, ethnicity, national orgin) rather than on personal behavior

48

dual labor market

the existence of a split between core and peripheral segments of the economy and the division of hte labor force into preferred marginalized workers

49

transnationals

immigrants who maintain ties in more than one country

50

biological determinism

the attribution of behavioral differences to inherited physical characteristics

51

sex

the biological distinction between male and female

52

gender

the expectations and behaviors associated with a sex category within a society- is acquired through socialization

53

gender identity

an awareness of being masculine or feminine, based on culture

54

sexual harassment

the use of ones superior power in making unwelcome advances

55

gender socialization

the social process in which boys learn to act the way society assumes boys will behave and girls learn to act in ways society expects them

56

stereotype

was defined as a set of ideas based on distortion, exaggeration, and oversimplification that is applied to all members of a social catagory

57

sex stereotype

is used to portray one sex as innately superior to the other

58

gender roles

involve culturally based expectations associated with each sex

59

SEXISM

A SET of beliefs, norms, and values used to justify sexual inequality

60

occupational sex segregation

despite the increased participation in the labor force, women are still concentrated in different occupations as men

61

dual labor market

a split economy into a core segment of preferred workers and a peripheral segment of hte marginalized workers

62

chivalry hypothesis

females are treated more leniently than males because the men who control the criminal justice system have a protective attitude toward women

63

womens movement

a social movement aimed at the achievement of sexual equality, socially, equally, politically and economically

64

feminist theory

is defined as a branch of conflict theory that links the lives of women (and men) to the structure of gender relationships