Chapter 9- Muscles and Muscle Tissue

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1

What are the types of muscle tissue

skeletal, smooth, cardiac

2

Which type of muscle tissue are attached to bone and skin, are striated, voluntary, contract rapidly, and require nervous system stimulation?

skeletal muscle

3

What type of muscle tissue is only in the heart, striated, can contract without nervous system stimulation, and is involuntary?

cardiac muscle

4

What type of muscle tissue is also called visceral, is not striated, can contract without nervous system stimulation, is involuntary, and found in the walls of hollow organs?

smooth muscle

5

What type of muscle tissue is multinucleated?

skeletal muscle

6

What special characteristic of muscle tissue is the ability to receive and respond to stimuli?

excitability

7

What special characteristic of muscle tissue is the ability to shorten forcibly when stimulated?

contractility 

8

What special characteristic of muscle tissue is the ability to be stretched?

extensibility

9

What special characteristic of muscle tissue is the ability to recoil to resting length?

elasticity

10

What are the important functions of muscle?

movement of fluid or bones; maintain posture and body position; stabilizing joints; heat generation 

11

What are the additional functions of muscles?

protect organs; form valves; control pupil size; causes goosebumps

12

Each muscle is served by what?

one artery, one nerve, and one or more veins

13

What is the most external part of skeletal muscle - a dense, irregular connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle?

epimysium

14

What is the fibrous connective tissue that surrounds fascicles (groups of muscle fibers) in skeletal muscle?

perimysium

15

What is the fine areolar connective tissue surrounding each individual muscle fiber/cell?

endomysium

16

Skeletal muscle attaches in at least what two places?

origin and insertion

17

What type of attachment in skeletal muscle occurs when the epimysium is fused to the periosteum of bone or the perichondrium of cartilage?

direct 

18

What type of attachment in skeletal muscle occurs when connective tissue wrappings extend beyond the muscle as rope-like tendon or sheetlike aponeurosis?

indirect 

19

What is the plasma membrane of a skeletal muscle fiber/cell called?

sarcolemma

20

What is the cytoplasm called in a skeletal muscle fiber?

sarcoplasm

21

What are the modified structures called in a skeletal muscle fiber?

myofibrils, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and T tubules

22

In skeletal muscle, what is the lighter region in the middle of the dark A band, where filaments do not overlap?

H zone

23

In skeletal muscle, what is the line of protein myomesin that bisects the H zone?

M line

24

In skeletal muscle, what is the coin shaped sheet of proteins on the midline of the light I band that anchors thin filaments and connects myofibrils to one another?

Z disc (line)

25

Which filaments run the entire length of the A band?

thick filaments

26

Which filaments run the length of the I band and partway into the A band?

thin filaments

27

What is the region between two successive Z discs called?

sarcomere

28

What is the smallest contractile unit (functional unit) of muscle fiber?

sarcomere

29

What are the thin filaments called that extend across the I band and partway into A band, and are anchored to Z discs?

Actin

30

What are the thick filaments called that extend the length of the A band and connect at the M line?

Myosin 

31

Myosin heads contain 2 smaller, light polypeptide chains that act as ______  _______ during contraction.

cross bridges

32

What are the regulatory proteins that bind to actin?

tropomyosin and troponin 

33

What links thin filaments to proteins of the sarcolemma; and are mutated in someone with muscular distrophy? 

Dystrophin

34

What functions in regulation of intracellular calcium levels, stores and releases calcium to allow muscles to contract?

sarcoplasmic reticulum

35

What are continuations of the sarcolemma, increase the muscle fiber's surface area, penetrate the cell's interior at each A band-I band junction, and associate with paired terminal cisterns to form triads that encircle each sarcomere?

T tubules

36

In the triad, what conducts impulses deep into the muscle fiber?

T tubules

37

During contraction, thin filaments slide past thick filaments, and actin and myosin overlap more.  This is called?

sliding filament model of contraction

38

What occurs when myosin heads bind to actin?

cross bridges 

39

What forms and breaks several times, ratcheting thin filaments towards the center of the sarcomere?

cross bridges

40

What must happen for skeletal muscle to contract?

activation (must generate action potential in the sarcolemma) and excitation-contraction coupling (action potential is propagated along the sarcolemma and calcium levels rise briefly)

41

What does the sarcoplasmic reticulum release to bind to troponin?

calcium

42

What happens when calcium/potassium enter/leave the cell?

It becomes depolarized 

43

When calcium binds to troponin, what is exposed?

myosin-binding sites on actin

44

What binds to actin, causing contraction to begin?

myosin heads 

45

Action potential travels along what, causing the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium?

T tubules