RadReview Criteria for image evaluation 63

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1
card image

The lateral coccyx image shown in Figure 4–4 was made using AEC but is overexposed. This is most likely a result of

Figure 4–4.

A.
incorrect selection of the small focal spot
B.
insufficient backup time
C.
selection of the center photocell
D.
incorrect centering of the part

D.
incorrect centering of the part

2
card image

What is the correct critique of the CR image shown in Figure 4–6?

Figure 4–6.

A.
double exposure
B.
inverted IP
C.
incomplete erasure
D.
image fading

B.
inverted IP

3
card image

The radiograph shown in Figure 4–14 is most likely the result of

Figure 4–14.
A.
an off-level grid
B.
pronounced anode heel effect
C.
low-milliampere-seconds and high-kilovoltage factors
D.
low-kilovoltage and high-milliampere–seconds factors

C.
low-milliampere-seconds and high-kilovoltage factors

4
card image

The PA chest image shown in Figure 4–13 exhibits which of the following qualities?

Figure 4–13.
Adequate penetration of the heart

Long-scale contrast

Adequate inspiration

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

5

Which of the following artifacts is occasionally associated with the use of grids in digital imaging?
A.
Incomplete erasure
B.
Aliasing
C.
Image fading
D.
Vignetting

B.
Aliasing

6

Which of the following pathologic conditions would require a decrease in exposure factors?
A.
Congestive heart failure
B.
Pneumonia
C.
Emphysema
D.
Pleural effusion

C.
Emphysema

7

Grid cutoff due to off-centering would result in
A.
overall loss of density
B.
both sides of the image being underexposed
C.
overexposure under the anode end
D.
underexposure under the anode end

A.
overall loss of density

8

A radiograph made with a parallel grid demonstrates decreased density on its lateral edges. This is most likely due to
A.
static electrical discharge
B.
the grid being off-centered
C.
improper tube angle
D.
decreased SID

D.
decreased SID

9

Which of the following pathologic conditions probably will require a decrease in exposure factors?
A.
Osteomyelitis
B.
Osteoporosis
C.
Osteosclerosis
D.
Osteochondritis

B.
Osteoporosis

10

Which type of error results in grid cutoff at the periphery of the radiographic image?
A.
Off-focus
B.
Off-center
C.
Off-level
D.
Off-angle

A.
Off-focus

11

Electronic imaging terms used to indicate the intensity of radiation reaching the IR include

exposure index

sensitivity (S) number

field of view (FOV)

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

12

A patient is being positioned for a particular radiographic examination. The x-ray tube, image recorder, and grid are properly aligned, but the body part is angled. Which of the following will result?
A.
Grid cutoff at the periphery of the image
B.
Grid cutoff along the center of the image
C.
Increased density at the periphery
D.
Image distortion

D.
Image distortion

13

Focal-spot blur is greatest
A.
toward the anode end of the x-ray beam
B.
toward the cathode end of the x-ray beam
C.
directly along the course of the CR
D.
as the SID is increased

B.
toward the cathode end of the x-ray beam

14
card image

Both radiographic images seen in the figure below were made of the same subject using identical exposure factors. Which of the following statements correctly describes these images?
1. Image A demonstrates less optical density because a shorter SID was used.
2. Image A demonstrates more optical density because the subject was turned PA.
3. Image B demonstrates more optical density because a shorter SID was used.

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
3 only
D.
1 and 2 only

C.
3 only

15
card image

The area of blurriness seen in the upper part of the radiograph shown in Figure 4–20 is most likely due to

Figure 4–20.
A.
scattered radiation fog
B.
patient motion
C.
poor screen–film contact
D.
grid cutoff

C.
poor screen–film contact

16

Although the stated focal-spot size is measured directly under the actual focal spot, focal-spot size actually varies along the length of the x-ray beam. At which portion of the x-ray beam is the effective focal spot the largest?
A.
At its outer edge
B.
Along the path of the central ray
C.
At the cathode end
D.
At the anode end

C.
At the cathode end

17
card image

The mottled appearance of the radiograph shown in Figure 4–26 is most likely representative of

Figure 4–26.
A.
Paget disease
B.
osteoporosis
C.
safelight fog
D.
exposure artifacts

D.
exposure artifacts

18

The effect that differential absorption has on radiographic contrast of a high-subject-contrast part can be minimized by

using a compensating filter.

using high-kilovoltage exposure factors.

increased collimation.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

19
card image

The radiograph shown in Figure 6–10 exhibits a loss of radiographic density as a result of

Figure 6–10.
A.
x-ray tube angulation across grid lines.
B.
exceeding the focusing distance.
C.
incorrect grid placement.
D.
insufficient SID.

C.
incorrect grid placement.

20

What are the effects of scattered radiation on a radiographic image?

It produces fog.

It increases contrast.

It increases grid cutoff.

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

21

Using an AEC system, how will the mAs be adjusted as the film–screen speed combination is decreased?
A.
The mAs will increase as film–screen speed decreases.
B.
Both the mAs and the kV will increase as film–screen speed decreases.
C.
The milliamperage will decrease as film–screen speed decreases.
D.
The mAs remains unchanged as film–screen speed decreases

D.
The mAs remains unchanged as film–screen speed decreases.

22
card image

Which of the following errors is illustrated in Figure 4–15?

Figure 4–15.
A.
Patient not centered to IR
B.
X-ray tube not centered to grid
C.
Inaccurate collimation
D.
Unilateral grid cutoff

B.
X-ray tube not centered to grid

23

Which of the following factors influence(s) the production of scattered radiation?

Kilovoltage level

Tissue density

Size of field

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

24

Which of the following function(s) to reduce the amount of scattered radiation reaching the IR?
1. Grid devices
2. Restricted focal spot size
3. Beam restrictors

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
1 and 3 only

25

If the radiographer is unable to achieve a short OID because of the structure of the body part or patient condition, which of the following adjustments can be made to minimize magnification distortion?
A.
A smaller focal-spot size should be used.
B.
A longer SID should be used.
C.
Faster intensifying screens should be used.
D.
A lower-ratio grid should be used.

B.
A longer SID should be used.

26
card image

Which of the following statements is (are) true with respect to the radiograph shown in Figure 4–29?

Figure 4–29.
The image exhibits long-scale contrast.

The image exhibits a clothing artifact.

The image demonstrates motion blur.

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

27

Which of the following can be used to determine the sensitivity of a particular film emulsion?
A.
Sensitometric curve
B.
Dose–response curve
C.
Reciprocity law
D.
Inverse-square law

A.
Sensitometric curve

28

Misalignment of the tube–part–IR relationship results in
A.
shape distortion
B.
size distortion
C.
magnification
D.
blur

A.
shape distortion

29

Which of the following can impact the visibility of the anode heel effect?

SID

IR size

Screen speed

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

30

If the quantity of black metallic silver on a particular x-ray film is such that it allows 1% of the illuminator light to pass through the film, that film has a density of
A.
0.1
B.
1.0
C.
2.0
D.
3.0

C.
2.0

31

SID affects recorded detail in which of the following ways?
A.
Recorded detail is directly related to SID.
B.
Recorded detail is inversely related to SID.
C.
As SID increases, recorded detail decreases.
D.
SID is not a detail factor.

A.
Recorded detail is directly related to SID

32
card image

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the artifact seen in the erect PA projection of the chest shown in Figure 4–31?

Figure 4–31.
A.
The object is located within the patient.
B.
The object is located within the cassette.
C.
The object is located between the patient and the x-ray tube.
D.
The object is located between the patient and the IR.

B.
The object is located within the cassette.

33

Acceptable method(s) of minimizing motion unsharpness is (are)

suspended respiration

short exposure time

patient instruction

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

34
card image

The PA chest image shown in Figure 4–18 demonstrates

Figure 4–18.
excessive density

insufficient kilovoltage

underpenetration

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

35

Radiographic recorded detail is inversely related to

SID

OID

imaging-system speed

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

36

Causes of grid cutoff, when using focused reciprocating grids, include the following?

Inadequate SID

X-ray tube off-center with the long axis of the lead strips

Angling the beam in the direction of the lead strips

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

37
card image

The tiny minus-density artifacts seen in the more proximal portion of the CR image of the radius shown in Figure 4–9 are representative of

Figure 4–9.
A.
backscatter
B.
skipped scan lines
C.
dust/dirt on the PSP
D.
image fading

C.
dust/dirt on the PSP

38
card image

The radiograph shown in Figure 4–23 exhibits an artifact caused by

Figure 4–23.

A.
an inverted focused grid
B.
poor screen–film contact
C.
a foreign body in the IR
D.
static electricity

D.
static electricity

39

For which of the following examinations can the anode heel effect be an important consideration?

Lateral thoracic spine

AP femur

Right anterior oblique (RAO) sternum

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

40

A 15% decrease in kilovoltage accompanied by a 50% increase in milliampere-seconds will result in a(n)
A.
shorter scale of contrast
B.
increase in exposure latitude
C.
increase in radiographic density
D.
decrease in recorded detail

A.
shorter scale of contrast

41
card image

Which of the following statements is (are) most likely true regarding the figure below?
1. Image A was made using a higher kVp than image B.
2. Image A was made with a higher ratio grid than image B.
3. Image A was made with more collimation than image B.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

42

All the following statements regarding beam restriction are true except
A.
beam restriction improves contrast resolution
B.
beam restriction improves spatial resolution
C.
field size should never exceed IR dimensions
D.
beam restriction reduces patient dose

B.
beam restriction improves spatial resolutio

43
card image

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding Figure 4–28?

Figure 4–28A&B.
Image A was made using a higher kilovoltage than image B.

Image A was made with a higher-ratio grid than image B.

Image A demonstrates shorter-scale contrast than image B.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

44
card image

Which of the radiographs shown in Figure 4–5 most likely required the greater exposure?

Figure 4–5.
A.
Image A
B.
Image B
C.
No difference in exposure was required

B.
Image B

45

Which of the following conditions require(s) a decrease in technical factors?

Emphysema

Osteomalacia

Atelectasis

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

46

The continued emission of light by a phosphor after the activating source has ceased is termed
A.
fluorescence
B.
phosphorescence
C.
image intensification
D.
quantum mottle

B.
phosphorescence

47

What is likely to result from using single-emulsion film in an IR that has two intensifying screens?
A.
Double exposure
B.
Decreased density
C.
Increased recorded detail
D.
Greater latitude

B.
Decreased density

48

Which of the following will have an effect on radiographic contrast?
1. Beam restriction
2. Grids
3. Focal spot size

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

49
card image

The radiograph shown in Figure 4–12 demonstrates an example of

Figure 4–12.
A.
tree static
B.
underexposure
C.
processing artifact
D.
exposure artifact

D.
exposure artifact

50
card image

Two film–screen images of the skull are shown in Figure 4–10. Which of the following best describes their different appearance?

Figure 4–10A&B.
A.
Image B was made using a grid.
B.
Image A demonstrates higher contrast.
C.
Image A demonstrates motion.
D.
Image B demonstrates shape distortion.

B.
Image A demonstrates higher contrast.

51
card image

The radiograph shown in Figure 4–21 illustrates incorrect use of

Figure 4–21.
A.
collimator
B.
grid
C.
AEC
D.
focal spot

B.
grid

52

In an AP abdomen taken at 105-cm SID during an IV urography series, one renal shadow measures 9 cm in width. If the OID is 18 cm, what is the actual width of the kidney?
A.
5 cm
B.
7.5 cm
C.
11 cm
D.
18 cm

B.
7.5 cm

53

Which of the following would be useful for an examination of a patient suffering from Parkinson disease?

High-speed screens

Short exposure time

Compensating filtration

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

54

In a posteroanterior (PA) projection of the chest being used for cardiac evaluation, the heart measures 14.7 cm between its widest points. If the magnification factor is known to be 1.2, what is the actual diameter of the heart?
A.
10.4 cm
B.
12.25 cm
C.
13.5 cm
D.
17.64 cm

B.
12.25 cm

55

Foreshortening can be caused by
A.
the radiographic object being placed at an angle to the IR
B.
excessive distance between the object and the IR
C.
insufficient distance between the focus and the IR
D.
excessive distance between the focus and the IR

A.
the radiographic object being placed at an angle to the IR

56

A focal-spot size of 0.3 mm or smaller is essential for which of the following procedures?
A.
Bone radiography
B.
Magnification radiography
C.
Tomography
D.
Fluoroscopy

B.
Magnification radiography

57

If a lateral projection of the chest is being performed on an asthenic patient and the outer photocells are selected, what is likely to be the outcome?
A.
Decreased density
B.
Increased density
C.
Scattered radiation fog
D.
Motion blur

A.
Decreased density

58
card image

What is the correct critique of the CR image shown in Figure 4–17?

Figure 4–17.
A.
double exposure
B.
grid centering error
C.
incorrect AEC photocell
D.
inverted focused grid

B.
grid centering error

59

What pixel size has a 512 x 512 matrix with a 20-cm field of view (FOV)?
A.
0.07 mm/pixel
B.
0.40 mm/pixel
C.
0.04 mm/pixel
D.
4.0 mm/pixel

B.
0.40 mm/pixel

60

If a radiograph exhibits insufficient density, this might be attributed to

inadequate kilovoltage

inadequate SID

grid cutoff

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
1 and 3 only

61
card image

What is the correct critique of the CR image shown in Figure 4–3?

Figure 4–3.
A.
double exposure
B.
inverted IP
C.
incomplete erasure
D.
image fading

A.
double exposure

62

In general, as the intensification factor increases,

radiographic density increases

screen resolution increases

recorded detail increases

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 only

63

Foreshortening of an anatomic structure means that
A.
it is projected on the IR smaller than its actual size
B.
its image is more lengthened than its actual size
C.
it is accompanied by geometric blur
D.
it is significantly magnified

A.
it is projected on the IR smaller than its actual size