Human Anatomy & Physiology: A&P Lab Flashcards
These support cells are found in the central nervous system.
astrocytes and ependymal cells
The formation of myelin in the peripheral nervous system is accomplished by these cells.
You have lost the sensation, but not movement, in one of your hands due to a problem with your neurons. Based upon these symptoms, what type of neuron was most likely affected?
Oligodendrocytes form myelin around ________.
Vesicles in the axon terminal contain ________.
Cardiac muscle is found in the ________.
The function of the neuromuscular junction is to ________.
convey an impulse from the nervous system to skeletal muscle
These nervous system cells are highly specialized to transmit messages throughout the body.
A cluster of neurons in the peripheral nervous system is called a ________.
You are examining a neuron under the microscope. It appears as a round cell without visible processes. What is true of this neuron?
It is likely to be a unipolar neuron, it is located in the PNS (peripheral nervous system), and it is most likely to be a sensory neuron.
The ________ forms synapses, or junctions, with other neurons or effector cells.
Of the basic muscle types, this is the "meat" of the body, attached to the skeleton, which moves the limbs and other body parts.
This part of the neuron generates and conducts action potentials.
Sensory or afferent neurons are typically of this type.
What is true of a mixed nerve?
It contains both afferent and efferent nerve fibers.
This strong, cord-like structure attaches muscles to bones.
This indentation of the sarcolemma carries electrical signals deep into the muscle cells.
The support cells found in nervous tissue are called ________.
The actual contractile units of muscles extend from Z disc to Z disc. They are ________.
Which muscle tissue type is controlled voluntarily?
This is the most abundant and widely distributed tissue type in the body.
A demyelinating disease affects ________.
What is true about tracts and nerves?
Tracts lack connective tissue coverings.
A neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates is called a ________.
Muscle cells ________.
are long, can have many nuclei, and can have striations
At the neuromuscular junction, the electrical signal of the nerve ________.
causes the axon terminal to release acetylcholine (Ach)
Tendons differ from ligaments in that ________.
tendons bind muscle to bone and ligaments bind bone to bone
Acetylcholine (Ach) is the neurotransmitter of axon terminals at the neuromuscular junction. It ________.
diffuses across the synaptic cleft, binds to receptors on the muscle membrane, and ultimately causes the muscle to depolarize and contract
This type of sensory neuron is quite rare.
Each of the elements that make up a skeletal muscle is surrounded by connective tissue. Which words below correctly pair the connective tissue layer with the corresponding muscle structure?
Groups of fibers are bound into fascicles by a coarse connective tissue called ________.
The gaps in the sheath that insulates axons are called ________.
nodes of Ranvier
Nervous tissue contains neurons that ________.
have long processes extending from their cell bodies
An aponeurosis is ________.
similar to a tendon in function
The space between the axon terminal and the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber is called the ________.
Multipolar neurons in the brain are likely to be ________.
Commonly referred to as the ________, this muscle group on the posterior thigh extends the hip.
The articular cartilage in synovial joints best resembles ________.
Ligaments reinforce joints by holding the bones together. What tissue type are ligaments?
dense regular connective tissue
Muscles are named based on all the criteria below except ________.
weight of the muscle
This muscle fixes the shoulder as you attempt to lift a heavy table with your forearm.
The ________ joint is an immovable joint that holds bones of the axial skeleton tightly together to protect the ________.
Flexion and extension are usually movements in the ________ plane(s) of the body.
This pair of muscles includes the prime mover of inspiration, and its synergist.
diaphragm and external intercostals
This name reveals the number of the muscle's origins.
This special type of joint holds the teeth in place.
When both muscles of this pair are contracted simultaneously, they flex the neck forward.
A superficial muscle of the leg, this one dorsiflexes the foot.
Which joint can move in only two planes?
Using the structural classification of joints, the shoulder is a ________ joint.
The quadriceps are the prime movers of knee extension. Which muscle group is an antagonist to knee extension?
This structure contributes to stability of the hip joint.
This forearm muscle is a powerful wrist flexor.
flexor carpi radialis
Like the deltoid muscle that lies over and abducts the shoulder, these two muscles lie over the hip and are prime movers of hip abduction. Neither muscle extends the hip.
gluteus medius and gluteus minimus
This muscle is named for the direction of its fibers.
This joint of the body has the greatest range of movement.
This muscle's name tells you what it does.
adductor magnus, extensor digitorum, and flexor carpi radialis
What is true about the movement properties of the following joints?
All synovial joints are freely movable.
Which statement is true about synovial joints?
Ball and socket joints are multiaxial.
The shape of this muscle gives it its name.
The biceps brachii muscle flexes the elbow. What could you do to make the elbow extend?
contract a muscle on the posterior side of the elbow
This large, fan-shaped muscle of the upper chest is the prime mover of arm flexion.
Muscles are strung across joints and can therefore move them. The insertion of a muscle ________.
moves toward the origin during contraction
This muscle is used in smiling.
This superficial muscle covers a large part of the posterior thorax.
A joint can only perform these movements: flexion/extension and abduction/adduction. It is therefore a ________ joint.
Located over the mandibular ramus, this muscle closes the jaw.
Which of the following will reduce friction in synovial joints?
articular cartilage, bursae, and synovial fluid
Using the functional classification of joints, the intervertebral joint between bodies of adjacent vertebrae is a(n) ________ joint.
amphiarthrotic (slightly movable)
A synergist to zygomaticus, this muscle aids in smiling.
You are asked to demonstrate plantar flexion. To do this, you must move your ________.
Pronation and supination are movements of the ________.
long, cylindrical multinucleate cells and obvious striations.
branching, striated cells with single nuclei and intercalated discs
spindle shaped cells with central, single nuclei. Cells are arranged to form sheets and there are NO striations.
the axon terminals and the muscle fibers.
stationary or immovable attachment of a skeletal muscle to a bone.
movable attachment of a skeletal muscle to a bone.
decreases the angle of a joint the distance between 2 bones.
increases the angle of a joint and the distance between 2 bones.
movement of a limb away from the midline or spreading apart of the digits.
movement of a limb toward the midline or bringing the digits together.
movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis.
movement of the distal end of a limb in a circle, describing a cone.
movement of the palm of the hand from an anterior or upward-facing position to a posterior or downward-facing position.
movement of the palm of the hand from a posterior-facing position to an anterior- facing position.
movement resulting in the medial turning of the sole of the foot.
movement resulting in the lateral turning of the sole of the foot.
movement of the ankle in a dorsal direction or standing on one’s heels.
movement of the ankle flexing the foot downward or standing on or pointing the toes.