sociology test 11/04/14 Flashcards

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In the "Nature vs. Nurture" argument regarding socialization, the "nature component refers to



The case study of Isabelle, the child discovered in Ohio who was being raised isolated in an attic with her deaf-mute mother, supports the position that the key to human development is ___________________.



Children who are assumed to have been raised by animals in the wilderness and isolated from other children, such as the "wild boy of Aveyron" are called ____________ children.



Studies of isolated children point out the importance of _______________ in acquiring the basic "human" traits we take for granted.

intimate early social interaction


The belief that our sense of self develops from interaction with others and interpreting how others think about us is the concept of ____________________.

the looking glass self


According to George Herbert Mead, we acquire our sense of self _________________.

when we learn to take the role of the other


According to Mead's theory of development, individuals who have a profound influence on the lives of another, such as parents or siblings, are referred to as ___________________.

significant others


Jean Piaget's use of the term "operational" is most aligned with the concept of _______________.

reasoning skill


According to Piaget, the stage of development that is dominated by touching, listening, and looking and the inability to recognize cause and effect is the _____________ stage.



In Freud's theory, the _______________ represents the pleasure seeking aspects of our personality demanding immediate fulfillment of basic needs such as attention, food, safety, and sex.



The social scientist who criticized the theory of Lawrence Koholberg, and developed an alternative theory on the development of morality based on personal relationships was ________________________.

Carol Gilligan


Which statment best summarizes the position of the Ik of northern Uganda hold as it pertains to their views on the social development of children?

Child development is a matter of self-reliance and survival of the fittest.


The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Dick and Jane. They plan to buy Dick a Tonka truck and Jane a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of _________________ by parents.

gender socialization


The fact that parents let their preschool boys roam farther from home that their preschool girls illustrates the idea that _________________.

girls are socialized to be more dependent


The primary source of gender socialization is ________________.



Contemplating a particular behavior that takes into consideration an awareness of the self in relationship to others to avoid feelings of shame and embarrassment, such as the consequences of dropping out of college, is referred to as our ______________.

social mirror


The conclusion Melissa Melkie reached after analyzing the influence that movies and television had on the social development of children was:

to be a "real man" is to be obsessed with sex and violence.


Video games ahve begun to portray women, such as Lara Croft, the adventure-seeking archaeologist and Xena, Warrior Princess in changing gender roles. This change in roles may also serve as _______________.

the creation of a new stereotype of women as symbolic males


Individuals who are aproximately the same age, linked by common interests, and include classmates and the "kids in the neighborhood" are most appropriately referred to as ____________.



The gender message in the mass media, as described in the textbook, is that gender serves as a primary basis for _____________.

perpetuating social inequality between the sexes


People and groups that influence our orientation to life, our self-concept, emotions, attitudes adn behavior are called _____________.

agents of socialization


The research of Kohn and his associates found that working-class parents are more prone to use ____________ as a method to encourage their children to accept guidance while middle class parents are more prone to use _____________.

physical punishment; reasoning


Researchers have found that the more hours per week that children were in daycare, the _______________.

weaker the bonds between mothers and children


As a third grader, Henry is reading stories about the American Revolution and how the early Americans were willing to fight to gain their freedom. According to conflict theorists, Henry is learning not only to read, but is also being taught lessons in patriotism and democracy. These lessons would be referred to by conflict theorists as _____________________.

part of the hidden curriculum in U.S. schools


The period following high school where young adults have not yet taken on the responsibilities ordinarily associated with adulthood is called ________________.

. transitional adulthood


Sociologist Michael Messner pointed out that boys deveolop relationships based on what they can get out of people. This is known as a(n) _______________ relationship.



The process of learning new norms, values, attitudes and behaviors is called ___________.



Professor Murphy, an anthropologist, always wears his field vest to class. In it he seems to have everything he needs including chalk, tape, pens and pencils, duct tape, a notebook, scissors, a magnifying glass, and many other "tools of the trade." Becuase he is never seen on campus without it, Professor Murphy's field vest serves as his ____________.

personal identity kit


Fred has just joined a fraternity. As part of his initiation, he has been forced to cook for the fraternity brothers, clean the frat house, and address the fraternity members as "sir." This is an example of what Harold Garfinkel termed ___________.

degradation ceremony


Society's labeling of stages in life such as "childhood" and "old age" is primarily the result of ________________.

social definitions