.Anatomy and Physiology 2, Chapter 21 Flashcards


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1

What part of the immune system takes the most time to mount a defense; its job is to attack particular foreign invaders?

adaptive,, specifiic or thirdline defenses

2

What are the responsibilities of the innate defenses?

React, respond quicklly, protect from foreign substances

3

What type of cell is a "Kupffer" cell?

Fixed macrophage

4

What are the characteristics of "natural killer" cells?

Not specific,, not phagocytic, release chemicals called perforins, release inflammaratory enhancers.

5

What are the four cardinals signs of short-term inflammation?

Redness, heat, swelling, and pain

6

What are the most important inflammatory mediators?

Histamin,, kinins, protaglandins (PGs), complement, cytokiins

7

What are the benefits of short-term edema?

Helps dilutte harmful substances, bring in large quantities of oxygen and nutrients for repair, allows entryof clotting proteins

8

What name is given to a pocket of "pus" that is not allowed to drain and accumulates in the body tissues?

Infectious granuloma

9

What are the benefits of fever?

Enhances body fight against pathogens by increasing metabolism, cause hypothalamus to release pyrogens, denatures ensymes.

10

Is fever always beneficial?

No, high fever denatures protein

11

What type of antigen is involved in allergies?

Hapten

12

Which type of MHC protein is found on all body cells?

Class 1 MHC

13

What type of active hummoral immunity is aquired when you get a vaccination?

Artificially aquired

14

What are the benefits of vaccines?

They spare us from the symptoms and discomfort of the disease that would otherwise occur. They provide functional antigenic determinants.

15

What diseases havve beenb wiped out or vastly reduced by the use of vaccines?

Small pox, polio, whooping cough, measles

16

Of the five classes of antibody, which one is the largest?

IgM

17

Which antibody do we get from our mothers?

IgG

18

Name the differentt types of "t" cells?

Helper Tcells, cytotoxic T cells, gamma delta t cells, lymphotoxin, gamma interferon, suppressor t cells

19

What type of cytokine is used to trat kidney cancer?

Interleukin 2

20

What type of tissue graft is most ofteen used?

Allografts

21

What type of tissue grafts uses the tissue from an identical twin?

Isografts

22

What are some of the most common autoimmune diseasez?

Multiple sclerosis, Myasthenia Systemic, lupus erytthematosus, glomerulonephritis, rheumotid arthritis

23

Which types of hpersensitivity is cell mediated?

Delayed hypersensitivity