Chapter 6 - Bones and Skeletal Tissue (Part 1)

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1

What does skeletal cartilage primarily consist of?

Water

2

True or False: Skeletal cartilage contains blood vessels and nerves

False

3

This layer of dense irregular tissue surrounds the cartilage

Perichondrium

4

True or false: The perichondrium contains blood vessels for nutrient delivery

True

5

All cartilage contains ____________ in lacunae and extracellular matrix

Chondrocytes

6

What are the types of skeletal cartilage

Hyaline, Elastic, Fibro-

7

What type of cartilage is the most abundant type, provides support, flexibility and resilience, and contains only collagen fibers?

Hyaline

8

What type of cartilage includes articular, costal, respiratory, and nasal cartilage?

Hyaline

9

What subtype of hyaline cartilage covers the ends of most bones at movable joints, reducing friction?

Articular cartilage

10

What subtype of hyaline cartilage connects the ribs to the strernum?

Costal cartilage

11

What subtype of hyaline cartilage forms the skeleton of the larynx and reinforces other respiratory passageways?

Respiratory cartilage

12

What subtype of hyaline cartilage supports the external nose?

Nasal cartilage

13

What type of cartilage is found in the external ear, epiglottis (trachea)?

Elastic cartilage

14

What type of cartilage has thick collagen fibers, great tensile strength, and is located in the menisci of knee and vertebral discs?

Fibrocartilage

15

In which type of bone growth do cells secrete matrix against the external face of existing cartilage? (bone replaces cartilage)

Appositional

16

In which type of bone growth do chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding cartilage from within?

Interstitial

17

Cartilage can become hardened due to deposit of what?

Calcium salts

18

What are the groups bones are divided into?

Axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton

19

Which skeleton group contains the skull, vertebral column and rib cage?

Axial skeleton

20

Which skeleton group contains the bones of upper and lower limbs, and girdles attaching limbs?

Appendicular skeleton

21

Classification of bones by shape include?

long, short, flat, irregular

22

What classification of bones are longer than they are wide?

Long bones

23

Examples of long bones include?

limb, wrist, ankle (metacarpal, fallangies)

24

What classification of bones are cube-shaped, include sesamoid bones, and are as wide as they are long?

Short bones

25

Examples of short bones include?

carpal bones, in wrist and ankle, patella

26

What classification of bones are thin, flat and slightly curved?

Flat bones

27

Examples of flat bones include?

sternum, scapulae, ribs, most skull bones

28

What classification of bones are complicated shapes?

Irregular bones

29

Examples of irregular bones include?

vertabrae, coxal (hip) bones

30

One function of bones is mineral and growth factor storage, including what?

calcium and phosphorous, growth factor resevoir

31

What is hematopoiesis?

Blood cell formation in red marrow cavities of certain bones

32

What is stored in bone cavities?

Triglycerides (fat) (yellow bone marrow)

33

One function of bones is hormone production. What hormone is produced?

Osetocalcin

34

What regulates bone formation, and protects against obesity, glucose intolerance, and diabetes mellitus?

Osteocalcin

35

What types of bones are made up of thin plates of spongy bone covered by compact bone?

Short, irregular, and flat

36

The plates are sandwiched between connective tissue membrane. The __________ is the outer layer and the ________ is the inner layer.

Periosteum, endosteum

37

What is the honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces called in spongy bone?

trabeculae

38

Hyaline cartilage covers the __________ surfaces of bones.

articular

39

In flat bones, the spongy bone is called the _____.

diploe

40

The structure of long bones consists of the shaft, or _________, and the ends, or ____________.

Diaphysis, epiphyses

41

The diaphysis surrounds a central ___________ cavity.

Medullary

42

In adults, the medullary cavity contains _____________.

Fat (yellow marrow)

43

What type of cartilage covers the joint surface of each epiphysis?

articular (hyaline)

44

The epiphyseal line is a remnant of the ________ ________, a disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone.

Epiphyseal plate

45

What type of membrane covers the external surfaces, except for joint surfaces, and is white and double-layered?

Periosteum

46

What secures to the bone matrix?

Sharpeys' fibers

47

The outer fibrous layer of the periosteum is made up of what type of connective tissue?

Dense irregular

48

What is the inner layer of the periosteum that abuts the bone surface and consists primarily of primitive stem cells called osteogenic cells?

osteogenic layer

49

True or False: The periosteum is supplied with nerve fibers and blood vessels that pass through the shaft to enter the marrow cavity.

True

50

Which membrane is made of delicate connective tissue and covers the internal bone surface?

Endosteum

51

Which membrane contains osteogenic cells that can differentiate into other bone cells?

Endosteum and periosteum

52

What is found within trabecular cavities of spongy bone and the diploe of flat bones?

Red marrow (hematopoietic tissue)

53

Where is red marrow found in newborns?

medullary cavities and spongy bone

54

What are sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment on external surfaces of bones?

Bone markings

55

What are the types of bone markings?

projections, depressions, and openings

56

What type of bone marking indicates stress by muscle pull or joint modifications?

Projections

57

What types of bone markings usually allow nerves or blood vessels to pass?

depressions and openings

58

What is a process?

extension of bone/prominence

59

What are the major cell types of bone tissue?

osteogenic, osteoblasts, osteocytes, bone lining cells, osteoclasts

60

Which type of bone tissue cells are also called osteoprogenitor cells?

osteogenic cells

61

Which type of bone tissue cells consists of mitotically active stem cells, leads to building of bones, and when stimulated differentiate into osteoblasts or bone lining cells?

osteogenic cells

62

What are bone-forming cells that secrete unmineralized bone matrix or osteoid?

osteoblasts

63

Which type of cells include collagen and calcium-binding proteins?

osteoblasts

64

What types of cells are mature bone cells in lacunae?

osteocytes

65

Which type of cells monitor and maintain bone matrix, act as stress or strain sensors, and are involved in bone remodeling?

osteocytes

66

What type of cells are on bone surfaces and are believes to help maintain the matrix?

bone lining cells

67

The bone lining cells located on the external bone surface are called?

Periosteal cells

68

The bone lining cells lining internal surfaces are called?

Endosteal cells

69

What type of cells are derived from hemotopoietic stem cells that become macrophages?

osteoclasts

70

What type of cells are giant, multinucleate cells for bone resorption?

osteoclasts

71

Compact bone is also called?

lamellar bone

72

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

osteon or Haversian system

73

What are the hollow tubes of bone matrix in the Haversian system called?

lamellae

74

The central canal that runs through the core of osteon is called?

Haversian canal

75

The perforating canals that connect blood vessels and nerves of periosteum, medullary cavity and central canal is called?

Volkmann's canal

76

What are small cavities that contain osteocytes in compact bone?

lacunae

77

What are hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal, to feed osteocyte cells?

canaliculi

78

What allows communication and permits nutrients and wastes to be relayed from one osteocyte to another throughout the osteon?

canaliculi

79

What are the types of lamellae

interstitial and circumferential

80

Spongy bone appears poorly organized and contains what?

trabeculae

81

What are the organic components of bone?

cells and osteoid

82

The resilience of bone is due to ________ _________ in or between collagen molecules.

sacrificial bonds