What does skeletal cartilage primarily consist of?
True or False: Skeletal cartilage contains blood vessels and nerves
This layer of dense irregular tissue surrounds the cartilage
True or false: The perichondrium contains blood vessels for nutrient delivery
All cartilage contains ____________ in lacunae and extracellular matrix
What are the types of skeletal cartilage
Hyaline, Elastic, Fibro-
What type of cartilage is the most abundant type, provides support, flexibility and resilience, and contains only collagen fibers?
What type of cartilage includes articular, costal, respiratory, and nasal cartilage?
What subtype of hyaline cartilage covers the ends of most bones at movable joints, reducing friction?
What subtype of hyaline cartilage connects the ribs to the strernum?
What subtype of hyaline cartilage forms the skeleton of the larynx and reinforces other respiratory passageways?
What subtype of hyaline cartilage supports the external nose?
What type of cartilage is found in the external ear, epiglottis (trachea)?
What type of cartilage has thick collagen fibers, great tensile strength, and is located in the menisci of knee and vertebral discs?
In which type of bone growth do cells secrete matrix against the external face of existing cartilage? (bone replaces cartilage)
In which type of bone growth do chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding cartilage from within?
Cartilage can become hardened due to deposit of what?
What are the groups bones are divided into?
Axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton
Which skeleton group contains the skull, vertebral column and rib cage?
Which skeleton group contains the bones of upper and lower limbs, and girdles attaching limbs?
Classification of bones by shape include?
long, short, flat, irregular
What classification of bones are longer than they are wide?
Examples of long bones include?
limb, wrist, ankle (metacarpal, fallangies)
What classification of bones are cube-shaped, include sesamoid bones, and are as wide as they are long?
Examples of short bones include?
carpal bones, in wrist and ankle, patella
What classification of bones are thin, flat and slightly curved?
Examples of flat bones include?
sternum, scapulae, ribs, most skull bones
What classification of bones are complicated shapes?
Examples of irregular bones include?
vertabrae, coxal (hip) bones
One function of bones is mineral and growth factor storage, including what?
calcium and phosphorous, growth factor resevoir
What is hematopoiesis?
Blood cell formation in red marrow cavities of certain bones
What is stored in bone cavities?
Triglycerides (fat) (yellow bone marrow)
One function of bones is hormone production. What hormone is produced?
What regulates bone formation, and protects against obesity, glucose intolerance, and diabetes mellitus?
What types of bones are made up of thin plates of spongy bone covered by compact bone?
Short, irregular, and flat
The plates are sandwiched between connective tissue membrane. The __________ is the outer layer and the ________ is the inner layer.
What is the honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces called in spongy bone?
Hyaline cartilage covers the __________ surfaces of bones.
In flat bones, the spongy bone is called the _____.
The structure of long bones consists of the shaft, or _________, and the ends, or ____________.
The diaphysis surrounds a central ___________ cavity.
In adults, the medullary cavity contains _____________.
Fat (yellow marrow)
What type of cartilage covers the joint surface of each epiphysis?
The epiphyseal line is a remnant of the ________ ________, a disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone.
What type of membrane covers the external surfaces, except for joint surfaces, and is white and double-layered?
What secures to the bone matrix?
The outer fibrous layer of the periosteum is made up of what type of connective tissue?
What is the inner layer of the periosteum that abuts the bone surface and consists primarily of primitive stem cells called osteogenic cells?
True or False: The periosteum is supplied with nerve fibers and blood vessels that pass through the shaft to enter the marrow cavity.
Which membrane is made of delicate connective tissue and covers the internal bone surface?
Which membrane contains osteogenic cells that can differentiate into other bone cells?
Endosteum and periosteum
What is found within trabecular cavities of spongy bone and the diploe of flat bones?
Red marrow (hematopoietic tissue)
Where is red marrow found in newborns?
medullary cavities and spongy bone
What are sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment on external surfaces of bones?
What are the types of bone markings?
projections, depressions, and openings
What type of bone marking indicates stress by muscle pull or joint modifications?
What types of bone markings usually allow nerves or blood vessels to pass?
depressions and openings
What is a process?
extension of bone/prominence
What are the major cell types of bone tissue?
osteogenic, osteoblasts, osteocytes, bone lining cells, osteoclasts
Which type of bone tissue cells are also called osteoprogenitor cells?
Which type of bone tissue cells consists of mitotically active stem cells, leads to building of bones, and when stimulated differentiate into osteoblasts or bone lining cells?
What are bone-forming cells that secrete unmineralized bone matrix or osteoid?
Which type of cells include collagen and calcium-binding proteins?
What types of cells are mature bone cells in lacunae?
Which type of cells monitor and maintain bone matrix, act as stress or strain sensors, and are involved in bone remodeling?
What type of cells are on bone surfaces and are believes to help maintain the matrix?
bone lining cells
The bone lining cells located on the external bone surface are called?
The bone lining cells lining internal surfaces are called?
What type of cells are derived from hemotopoietic stem cells that become macrophages?
What type of cells are giant, multinucleate cells for bone resorption?
Compact bone is also called?
What is the structural unit of compact bone?
osteon or Haversian system
What are the hollow tubes of bone matrix in the Haversian system called?
The central canal that runs through the core of osteon is called?
The perforating canals that connect blood vessels and nerves of periosteum, medullary cavity and central canal is called?
What are small cavities that contain osteocytes in compact bone?
What are hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal, to feed osteocyte cells?
What allows communication and permits nutrients and wastes to be relayed from one osteocyte to another throughout the osteon?
What are the types of lamellae
interstitial and circumferential
Spongy bone appears poorly organized and contains what?
What are the organic components of bone?
cells and osteoid
The resilience of bone is due to ________ _________ in or between collagen molecules.