A model of flower formation identifying three classes of organ identity genes that direct formation of the four types of floral organs.
1. The flattened portion of a typical leaf.
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that prevents desiccation in terrestrial plants.
The process by which a cell or group of cells become specialized in structure and function.
In plant roots, the innermost layer of the cortex that surrounds the vascular cylinder.
Ground Tissue System
Plant tissues that are neither vascular nor dermal, fulfilling a variety of function, such as storage, photosynthesis, and support.
An irreversible increase in size or biomass.
Two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the page.
A type of growth characteristic of plants, in which the organism continues to grow as long as it lives.
A segment of a plant stem between the points where leaves are attached.
A meristem that thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants. The vascular cambium and cork cambium are lateral meristems.
A root that rises from the pericycle of an established root.
The main photosynthetic organ of vascular plants.
A finger-like projection along the flank of a shoot apical meristem from which a leave arises.
A small raised area in the bark of stems and roots that enables gas exchange between living cells and the outside air.
The cellular and tissue-based process by which and animal body takes place.
A point along the stem of a plant at which plants are attached.
A specialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissues.
The development of a multicellular organism organism's spatial organization, the arrangement of organs and tissues in their characteristic places in three-dimensional space.
A cone of cells at the tip of a plant root that protects the apical meristem.
A tiny extension of a root epidermal cell, growing just behind the root tip and increasing surface area for absorption of water and minerals.
All of a plant's roots, which anchor it in the soil, absorb and transport minerals and water, and store food.
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
An integrated group of cells with a common structure, function, or both.
In plants, a vascular bundle in a leaf.
Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from the roots to the rest of the plant.