A&P I Chapters 6,7,8

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1

The growth pattern of bone in which matrix is laid down on the surface.

Appositional growth

2

The area of long bones where cartilage cells are replaced by bone cells.

Diaphysis

3

The appearance of this structure signals the end of bone growth.

Epiphyseal line

4

Area where bone longitudinal growth takes place

Epiphyseal plate

5

Epiphyseal plate

Osteoclasts out-pace osteoblasts due to low hormone production of the ovaries.

6

Bones are porous and thin but bone composition is normal.

Osteoporosis

7

Bone formed is poorly mineralized and soft. Deforms on weight bearing.

Osteomalacia

8

Abnormal bone formation and reabsorption.

Paget's disease

9

Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?

thyroid

10

Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?

osteoclast

11

What is absolutely required for bone growth or healing from a fracture?

osteoblasts

12

An incomplete fracture or cracking of the bone without actual separation of the parts.
Common in children.

Greenstick

13

Bone fragments into many pieces.

Comminuted

14

Common sports fracture resulting from a twisting force.

Spiral

15

All bones stop growing by the end of adolescence

False

16

Osteogenesis is the process of ________.

bone formation

17

In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________.

by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

18

For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?

An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.

19

Bones are classified by whether they are weight bearing or protective in function.

False

20

Cells that can dissolve the bony matrix

Osteoclasts

21

Layers of bone matrix

Lamellae

22

Small channels that radiate through the matrix of bone

Canaliculi

23

Cells that can build bony matrix

Osteoblasts

24

Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates an armlike bar of bone?

ramus

25

The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?

compact bone

26

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.

fat

27

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.

diaphysis

28

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

the osteon

29

The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.

perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

30

The term osteoid refers to the organic part of the matrix of compact bones.

True

31

An osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only

True

32

Which of the following is the single most important stimulus for epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childhood?

growth hormone

33

The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.

appositional growth

34

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

hyaline cartilage

35

What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?

decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

36

Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ________.

interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates

37

After having a severe cold accompanied by nasal congestion, Jamila complained that she had a headache just above her eyes and that the right side of her face ached. What specific bony structures probably became infected by the bacteria or viruses causing the cold?

The frontal sinus located in the frontal bone, and the right maxillary sinus located in the right maxilla

38

The ethmoid bone is composed of all of the following except the _______

inferior nasal concha

39

The suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the ________.

sagittal

40

Which bone acts as a moveable base for the tongue?

hyoid bone

41

What is the major function of the axial skeleton?

provide central support for the body and protect internal organs

42

The membranous areas between the cranial bones of the fetal skull are called ________.

fontanelles

43

Body weight is carried primarily by the talus and calcaneus.

True

44

The fibula is the major weight-bearing bone of the leg.

False

45

The ischium articulates with both the ilium and the pubis.

True

46

The pelvic girdle does not include the ________.

femur

47

Which forms the largest portion of the coxal bone?

ilium

48

In the anatomical position, the lateral forearm bone is the radius

True

49

Which bone contains areas of diaphysis and epiphysis areas, a tuberosity near its middle, and is proportionally more compact than spongy bone?

humerus

50

The layman's name for the scapula is the collarbone.

False

51

The term vertebrochondral ribs refers to ribs that attach to each other before they attach to the sternum

True

52

Costal cartilages join most ribs to the sternum.

True

53

All vertebrae possess a body, a spine, and transverse foramina.

False

54

Lordosis only occurs in pregnant women.

False

55

There are seven cervical, twelve thoracic, and five lumbar vertebrae.

True

56

Which of the following is not a movement that can occur between vertebrae?

supination

57

How are thoracic vertebrae 11 and 12 different from the other vertebrae?

The transverse processes do not have facets that articulate with the tubercles of the ribs

58

Thoracic vertebrae differ from the other vertebrae in that they have ________.

costal facets

59

Which part of the vertebral column receives the most stress by bearing most of the weight of the body?

the lumbar region

60

What is the major function of the intervertebral discs?

absorb shock

61

Which of the following is an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column often seen in the thoracic region?

scoliosis

62

Which vertebra does not have a body?

atlas

63

Which part of the ethmoid bone forms the superior part of the nasal septum?

perpendicular plate

64

The superior orbital fissure is formed in the sphenoid bone, whereas the inferior orbital fissure is formed between the sphenoid and ________.

maxilla

65

Which bone forms the prominence of the cheek?

zygomatic bone

66

All of the bones of the adult skull, except the mandible, are united by sutures and are therefore immovable.

True

67

The vomer forms part of the nasal septum

True

68

The largest and strongest bone of the face is the maxilla.

False

69

The temporal bone connects to the zygomatic bone via the temporal process of the temporal bone.

False

70

Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ________

amphiarthroses

71

In the classification of joints, which of the following is true?

All synovial joints are freely movable

72

The amount of movement permitted by a particular joint is the basis for the functional classification of joints.

True

73

All joints permit some degree of movement, even if very slight.

False

74

A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint.

gomphosis

75

Fibrous joints are classified as ________.

sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

76

A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of movement is a ________.

symphysis

77

Symphyses are synarthrotic joints designed for strength with flexibility.

False

78

Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction develops are called ________.

bursae

79

The gliding motion of the wrist uses ________ joints.

plane

80

A nurse is instructing the patient care assistants (PCAs) on transfer techniques. For patients needing to be slid toward the head of the bed, the nurse tells the PCAs use a draw sheet under the patient's torso. She tells them to avoid pulling on their hands or arms. Based on your knowledge of the shoulder joint, explain why pulling on the extremities should be avoided.

In the shoulder joint, stability has been sacrificed to provide the most freely moving joint of the body. The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket joint. Shoulder dislocations are fairly common, therefore forces that are not under the patient's control should be avoided.

81

Pronation is a much stronger movement than supination

False

82

Moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space is called circumduction.

True

83

Supination is the movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned from posterior to anterior..

True

84

Presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments are characteristics of what type of joint?

hinge joint

85

Which of the following movements does not increase or decrease the angle between bones?

rotation

86

Which of the following are cartilaginous joints?

Synchondroses

87

Maggie is a 28-year-old Caucasian woman who has newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA). She complains of painful, stiff hands and feet, feeling tired all the time, and reports an intermittent low-grade fever. She asks the nurse if she is going to be "crippled." How should the nurse respond?

RA is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder. Inflammation occurs in the joint, and the fluid that accumulates causes swelling, stiffness, impairment of joint movement, and extreme pain.

88

A person who has been diagnosed with a sprained ankle has an injury to the ligaments that attach to that joint.

True

89

Bending of the tip of the finger exhibits flexion.

True

90

Synovial fluid contains phagocytic cells that protect the cavity from invasion by microbes or other debris

True

91

Pronation is a much stronger movement than supination

False

92

Moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space is called circumduction.

True

93

Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of ________

hyperextension

94

Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following statements is true about this fluid?

It contains hyaluronic acid.

95

What is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane called?

abduction

96

The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ________ synovial joint.

multiaxial

97

Compared to the shoulder, displacements of the hip joints are ________.

rare because of the ligament reinforcement

98

Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the ligaments is (are) damaged as a result?

medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate

99

Tendon sheaths ________.

act as friction-reducing structures

100

Which of the following is not a part of the synovial joint?

tendon sheath

101

The only movement allowed between the first two cervical vertebrae is flexion.

False

102

Movement at the hip joint does not have as wide a range of motion as at the shoulder joint

True

103

Flexion of the ankle so that the superior aspect of the foot approaches the shin is called dorsiflexion.

True

104

Farhad begins typing his term paper on his new computer early one morning. After 8 hours of typing, he notices that his wrists are stiff and very sore. The next morning, Farhad begins to finish his paper, but soon finds his wrists hurt worse than last night. What is wrong?

Farhad is suffering from tendonitis. If he continues to use the keyboard incorrectly, the
tendonitis could develop into a very serious condition called carpal tunnel syndrome.