Junior Cert Short questions History Flashcards

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During the Age of Exploration, give two reasons why rulers were prepared to sponsor voyages.

spread Christianity, wealth, new land for their empires,new trade routes, travels of Marco Polo.


For what purpose was the following used during the Age of Explorations?

Latitude: to work out distance north of south of Equator


Name the country that discovered the sea route to India during the Age of Explorations.



Mention two abuses present in the Church before the Reformation.

Simony, Absenteeism, nepotism, pluralism


Mention two decisions made at the Council of Trent (1545-1563)

Faith and good works to get to Heaven.
Word of God found in Bible and Church teachings.
7 sacraments.
Priests not permitted to marry.
Pope was head of the Church.
Abuses were gone.
Catholics must learn from a catechism.
Images of Christ etc were placed in churches to teach people though pictures.
Results: Catholic religion was most important religion in Europe; Bigger problems between Catholics and Protestants.


Write down two reasons why there was a rebellion in Ireland in 1798.

From watching revolutions in France and Americans the ordinary people knew it was possible to create change of government. The Catholics were tired of being oppressed (put down) and having no rights.


Give two causes of the Great Famine in Ireland.

Population fell; Mainly poor people died. emigration rose. Irish people in USA blamed Britain for the hardship.


Give two consequences of the Reformation in Europe during the period of 1527-1648.

Europe divided into Protestant and Catholic areas.
Wars of Religion: civil wars in countries for control of the country.
Intolerance and persecution: People who did not belong to the country’s religion got killed.
Art and Architecture: Catholic churches decorated, Protestant not.
Education: Protestant churches had everyone reading the Bible.


Name two important inventions during the Industrial Revolution in Britain.

James watt and the steam engine, john Kay's flying shuttle, James Hargreaves and the spinning jenny.


Mention two effects of the Agricultural Revolution on Britain.

selective breeding, 4 field rotation system, new inventions: iron plough, machine for spreading seeds.


Give two consequences of the Reformation in Ireland.

The Land and wealth of the Catholic Church was confiscated. Catholics continued to practice put it was hidden.


Name two British rulers who ordered plantations to be carried out in Ireland.

King Henry, Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, Cromwell.


What was the Reign of Terror in France in the 1790’s.

After the execution of the king and Queen, Robespierre took over and executed anyone who disobeyed him.


Which Irish county was the scene of the most intense rebel activity during the 1798 Rising?



Explain how one of the following persons improved life for the people in the 19th century.
Robert Owen, Louis Pasteur, John McAdam

Robert Owen was a nice factory owner.he educated children and they didnt work until they were 12.
Louis Pasteur pasturised milk.
John McAdam invented tarmacadam to put on roads.


Explain what a primary source is.

Evidence which comes from the time being studied. EG: bones, newspapers, photographs.


Explain two of the following terms relating to the Early Christian monastery.
High Cross, Beehive Cell, Round Tower

High Cross have pictures from the Bible carved onto it. this teaches people who cant read about the bible.
Monks slept in circular stone huts.
Round towers were used to ring the bell for prayers. They also stored precious items like chalices when the monasteries were attacked.


Give one major characteristic of Gothic architecture.

Pointed arches.
flying butresses.


Name two stages in the training of a medieval craftsman.

apprentice, journeyman.


Name one Renaissance painter from OUTSIDE Italy and one of that painter’s works.
Painter: Work

Albrect Durer, 'The Hare'


Mention two developments in science or medicine during the Renaissance

The study of anatomy (the body),


Name one sixteenth-century religious reformer and one of that reformer’s beliefs.

Martin Luther: he believed in Justification by faith. You will get to heaven if you believe in God.


Give two consequences of the Reformation in Europe during the period 1517-1648.

Europe was divided into people who were Protestant and Catholic. Literacy and Education spread because people could read the Bible in their own language (vernacular).


Give two causes of the Great Famine, 1845-1850.

The potato blight killed all crops.
Any food in Ireland was exported.


During the Great Famine (1845-1850) what were coffin ships?

emigration ship where people died on the way to USA were put in the sea.


What change came about as a result of the Act of Union, 1801?

Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales united as the United Kingdom.


Give two important results of the Civil War in Ireland, 1922-1923.

Ireland was divided into two. People who supported the partition (division) of Ireland into North and South and those who didn't support. The Irish Free State was set up under William Cosgrave whereby Ireland ruled itself as part of the British Commonwealth.


What was the purpose of the Boundary Commission, 1924-1925?

To examine the boundary between North and South of Ireland.


Portolan charts;

coastal maps.


Log and Line;

used to measure speed.



new clinker built ships with lateen sails.


Name two instruments which an archaeologist would use to excavate a site.

brush, trowel, sieve, grid, photographs.


Name two types of tomb from Neolithic Ireland.

passage tomb, court cairn.


Explain the following terms relating to ancient Ireland:
Ogham; Fulachta Fiadh; Crannóg.

ogham was celtic writing. Fulachta Fiadh was how the Celts cooked meat in a pit in the ground, heated by hot stones. Crannóg was an island dwelling.


Give two important effects of the coming of the Normans to Ireland.

They introduced stone Castles.They introduced the Feudal system.


What were the functions of the guild in medieval times?

to protect the rights of craft workers. Everyone paid a fee and the guild provided money for the family of the worker if they died. Quality of prices was monitored.


In the medieval monastery what was the role of the almoner?

to help the sick.


Give two effects of the development of the printing press.

more people learnt to read and right. Publication of books became cheaper.


Name one Renaissance writer and one of that writer’s works.

Shakespeare and Romeo and Juillet.


Choose one of the revolutions (America or France or Ireland) 1770-1815 and give two causes of that revolution.

America: the British were unfairly taxing them. The Navigation Acts and the Stamp Acts were introduced.


Explain one way in which Ireland was affected by the French Revolution.

it inspired Irish rebels to hold a revolution in Ireland to try and improve the rights of Catholics.


Mention two serious problems faced by those living in industrial towns in England in the early nineteenth century.

pollution from factories and poor sanitation.


Why were even the poorest of people reluctant to enter the workhouse in Ireland during the 1840s?

it meant families were seperated from each other and more than likely you would die.


What was the Wall Street Crash, 1929?

the American Stock Exchange crashed.


Mention two actions taken by Cumann na nGaedheal to establish law and order in the new Irish State 1923-1932.

They arrested anyone who carried a gun or caused trouble. they set up An Garda Siochana.


Which Italian leader was known as Il Duce?



In November 1938, what happened during Kristallnacht in Germany?

Property belonging to Jews in Germany was destroyed.


During the Emergency what was the Compulsory Tillage Scheme?

Farmers in Ireland were ordered to grow crops.


Explain one of the following terms from International Relations in the Twentieth Century:
Iron curtain; Treaty of Rome; Imperialism.

The Iron Curtain was an invisible curtain around countries in Eastern Europe whose governments were communist with Russia in charge.


Name two people who have been leaders of Fine Gael since 1934.

Enda Kenny, William Cosgrave.


Why were the earliest times known as the Stone Age?

they used stone tools and weapons.


Mention two advances made by Neolithic people (New Stone Age).

Farming, permanent houses


In Celtic times who were the Aos Dána?

the wise people of the celtic society/family.


Name two important Celtic festivals.

bealtaine, lunasagh, samhain


Mention two important functions of the round tower in the Early Christian monastery.

to protect valuables and to hide from attack.


What was sanctuary in medieval times?

place of protection (church)


Give two reasons why the Renaissance began in Italy.

center of the roman empire, wealthy patrons,


Give two reasons why rulers were willing to sponsor voyages during the Age of Exploration.

wealth, power, spread Christianity, gain new lands.


Name and explain one instrument of navigation used during the Age of Exploration.

The compass was used for direction. The astrolabe was used to measure latitude, the distance of the north star north or south of the equator.


Name the civilisation conquered by the Spanish conquistador, Francisco Pizarro.

The Incas in Peru.


In Britain during the Agricultural Revolution, what is meant by the term enclosure?

the building of hedges, fences, ditches to create fields.


Mention two reasons why Unionists opposed Home Rule for Ireland.

they were afraid that Home Rule meant Rome Rule.They were afraid they would lose their privileged position in Irish society.


Name the political party founded by Éamon de Valera in 1926.

Fainna Fáil.


Why was the League of Nations set up in 1919?

to try and liaise between countries so that there would never been another world war.


During World War II what was the Blitz?

The German bombing of London.