Understanding Nutrition: Unit 3 Test Flashcards

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Which element is always ultimately involved whenever carbohydrates, fats, or proteins are broken down?

a. oxygen


The TCA cycle takes place within which cell organelle?

a. mitochondria


Which of the following entities of the body is completely dependent on glucose?

a. nerve cells
b. none of these choices
c. muscle tissue
d. brain
e. red blood cells

e. red blood cells


Each ounce of alcohol represents about ________ of fat.

.5 ounce


The cell's work that maintains all life processes without any conscious effort refers to the body's___?

basal metabolism


Which of the following serving sizes of alcohol is not equivalent to one drink?

12 oz of wine cooler


When a person consumes abundant carbohydrate, the body handles the carbohydrate by storing it as ________ .

a. glycogen


The accumulation of lactate in the muscles coincides with all of the following, except:

a. damage to the mitochondria


The body's adaptations to fasting are sufficient to maintain life for up to ________ .

a. 2 months


________ is the first 4-carbon compound to enter the TCA cycle.

a. Glycerol
b. Pyruvate
c. Acetyl CoA
d. Glucose
e. Oxaloacetate

e. Oxaloacetate


The first pathway glucose takes on its way to yield energy is called ________ .



Which cell structure is known as the "powerhouse" of cells and is where fatty acid oxidation and the TCA cycle occur?



One 16-carbon fatty acid molecule will yield ________ ATP when completely oxidized.

a. 129


Cells of which organ are the most metabolically active?

a. liver


Alcohol is the ________ leading preventable cause of death in the United States.



Which type of energy is stored in foods?



The pathway from dietary ________ to body fat is the most direct and most efficient for fat storage.

a. protein
b. all of these choices are equally direct and efficient
c. carbohydrate
d. fat

d. fat


Which of the following is not a manner in which alcohol disrupts the liver?

a. difficulty metabolizing other drugs and nutrients
b. difficulty making glucose from protein
c. difficulty activating vitamin C
d. difficulty in producing and releasing bile

c. difficulty activating vitamin C


Which of the following is not a psychological effect of food deprivation?

a. anxiety
b. food-related dreams
c. depression
d. food-related visions

d. food-related visions


Some of the energy released during the breakdown of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and amino acids from foods is captured in the high-energy storage compound ________ .



Which of the following compounds cannot be converted to glucose?

a. amino acids
b. all of these choices can be converted to glucose
c. glycerol
d. fatty acids

d. fatty acids


When glycogen or protein is broken down ________ production increases.



Muscles develop in response to which of the following stimuli?

a. high quality meats in the diet
b. protein supplements
c. hormones and physical activity only
d. hormones
e. physical activity
f. protein supplements and physical activity only

c. hormones and physical activity only


Acetyl CoA has two main functions – to synthesize ________ or to generate ATP.



Moderate consumption of alcohol may help reduce the risk for developing all of the following health conditions, except:

a. diabetes
b. osteoporosis
c. dementia
d. heart disease

c. dementia


Which of the following statements regarding the basic units of energy-yielding nutrients is false?

a. Amino acids have 2, 3, or more carbons with a sulfur molecule attached.
b. Glycerol has 3 carbons.
c. Fatty acids usually have an even number of carbons; commonly 16 or 18.
d. Glucose has 6 carbons.

a. Amino acids have 2, 3, or more carbons with a sulfur molecule attached.


Alcohol impacts the metabolism of this B-vitamin by reducing the liver's ability to retain the vitamin and increasing the kidney's excretion of the vitamin.



Which of the following statements regarding excess energy intake is false?

a. The body uses less energy to convert dietary carbohydrate to body fat than dietary fat to body fat.
b. The more protein and carbohydrate available for energy from food, the less fat contributes to energy thereby accumulating as fat storage.
c. When a person eats too much, metabolism favors fat formation.
d. Before entering fat storage, protein must fulfill its role in the body's lean tissues.

a. The body uses less energy to convert dietary carbohydrate to body fat than dietary fat to body fat.


8. Foods high in ________ provide high levels of satiation.

fiber and protein


8. Which of the following statements regarding factors affecting basal metabolic rate (BMR) is false?

a. In tall, thin people, the BMR is higher.
b. Both heat and cold raise the BMR.
c. Lean body mass decreases with age, increasing the BMR.
d. BMR is lowest when sleeping.
e. Stresses raise the BMR.

c. Lean body mass decreases with age, increasing the BMR.


8. This commonly used method to assess body fat can differentiate among fat-free soft tissues (lean body mass), fat tissue, and bone tissue.

a. skinfold measures
b. bioelectrical impedance
c. hydrodensitometry
d. dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
e. air displacement plethysmography

d. dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)


8. People afflicted with muscle dysmorphia tend to:

a. weight train for hours at a time
b. see themselves as weaklings even when they are muscular
c. all of these choices
d. obsess over pumping iron
e. eat high-protein diets

c. all of these choices


8. Approximately ________ % of daily energy expenditure can be attributed to the thermic effect of food.



8. Which of the following is not lost when weight gains or losses are rapid?

a. body fluid
b. fat
c. glycogen stores
d. bone minerals
e. muscle proteins

c. glycogen stores


8. A pound of body fat equals ________ kcalories.



8. Indirect calorimetry measures the amount of ________ consumed.

a. calories
b. water
c. nitrogen
d. carbon
e. oxygen

e. oxygen


8. In general, health problems typically develop when body fat exceeds ________ percent in young men and ________ percent in young women.

22; 26


8. Heat released when the body breaks down carbohydrate, fat, or protein for energy is called ________ .

a. thermogenesis


8. Which of the following nutrients provides the strongest satiety signals when it enters the intestine?

a. vitamins
b. carbohydrates
c. proteins
d. water
e. fats
f. minerals

e. fats


8. Which of the following is a risk factor associated with metabolic syndrome?

a. high blood pressure
b. high blood glucose
c. high blood triglycerides
d. all of these choices
e. low HDL cholesterol

d. all of these


8. All of the following are risks associated with being underweight, except:

a. osteoporosis
b. menstrual irregularities
c. heightened fertility
d. giving birth to an unhealthy infant
e. challenges with medical stresses

c. heightened fertility


8. As a person eats and they feel full, the response of ________ occurs and the person stops eating.



8. Which of the following statements regarding how anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa sometimes overlap is false?

a. victims of both disorders have a tendency to drastically under eat
b. victims of both disorders may be overly concerned with body weight
c. none of these choices
d. victims of both disorders may purge
e. victims of both disorders may perceive foods as "forbidden" and "give in" to an eating binge

c. none of these


8. Which of the following is not a function of fat in the body?

a. insulates against temperature extremes
b. makes vitamin A
c. provides energy
d. makes hormones
e. protects against physical shock

b. makes vitamin A


8. Which of the following activities expends the most energy per pound of weight per minute?

a. studying
b. walking at a rate of 3.5 mph
c. vacuuming
d. Wii bowling
e. golf (carrying clubs)

e. golf (carrying clubs)


8. Which part of the brain triggers the nerve signals and chemical messengers responsible for the hunger response?

a. hypothalamus


8. Put the three eating disorders discussed in your text in order from the highest to the lowest prevalence in the United States.

binge eating disorder; bulimia nervosa; anorexia nervosa


9. Which of the following statements regarding environmental influences and food intake is incorrect?

a. People tend to eat less food when socializing with others.
b. The less effort needed to obtain food the more likely food is to be eaten.
c. A pleasant and comfortable environment tends to result in eating more.
d. Regardless of hunger, the sight of food can prompt a person to start eating.

a. People tend to eat less food when socializing with others.


9. Which of the following drugs inhibits pancreatic lipase activity in the GI tract, thereby blocking dietary fat digestion and absorption by about 30 percent?



9. Which of the following is not an indicator used by health-care professionals in evaluating the risks to health from obesity?

a. disease risk profile
b. body mass index (BMI)
c. body weight
d. waist circumference

c. body weight


9. A waist circumference of greater than ________ inches in men and ________ inches in women is an indicator of obesity.

40; 35


9. Which of the following statements regarding breakfast consumption is incorrect?

a. Those that frequently eat breakfast have a higher BMI than those who skip breakfast.


9. Which of the following statements regarding brown adipose tissue (brown fat) is false?

a. Brown adipose tissue is an accumulation of specialized fat cells packed with pigmented mitochondria.

b. Brown fat activity is most apparent during exposure to cold.
c. Most human adults have little brown adipose tissue.
d. Overweight and obese individuals have more brown fat activity than others.
e. Brown adipose tissue releases stored energy as heat.

d. Overweight and obese individuals have more brown fat activity than others.


9. Ephedrine is an amphetamine-like substance extracted from the Chinese ephedra herb ________ .

a. ma huang


9. Restaurant serving sizes are now ________ times larger than standard serving sizes.

2 to 8


9. Obesity due to an increase in the size of fat cells is called ________ obesity.

a. hypertrophic



9. All of the following statements regarding weight maintenance are true, except:

a. Those who are successful in maintaining their weight, take in a lower percentage of kcalories from carbohydrates than the national average.
b. Most people who have lost weight in their lifetime did so on their own, not in a formal program.
c. Physical activity plays a key role in maintaining weight once it is lost.
d. With weight loss, metabolism shifts downward in a formerly overweight person.



9. Depending on initial body weight, a reasonable rate of weight loss for overweight people is ________ percent of body weight over six months.

10 %


9. Which of the following statements regarding gender and fat cell metabolism is false?

a. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) production is more abundant in the fat cells of the abdominal area in men than in women.
b. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) production is more abundant in the fat cells of the hips and thighs than in the abdominal area in women.
c. The rate of fat breakdown is lower in women than in men.
d. The release of lower-body fat (around the hips and thighs) is more active in women than in men.



9. To prevent weight gain, the DRI suggests an accumulation of ________ minutes of moderately intense physical activities every day in addition to the less intense activities of daily living.



9. Which of the following hormones is released from fat cells under the direction of the ob gene resulting in a suppressed appetite and increased energy expenditure?



9. Which of the following statement regarding obesity in the United States is false?

a. Obesity in the U.S. is widespread and is considered an epidemic.
b. The prevalence of overweight is especially high among women, the poor, blacks, and Mexican Americans.
c. Obesity tends to be limited to industrialized nations.
d. An estimated two-thirds of the adults in the U.S. are considered overweight or obese.



9. Rapid weight loss is defined as losing more than ________ pound(s) per week.

1.5 to 2


9. In general, weight-loss diets need to provide about ________ kcalories per day for women.



9. An estimated ________ percent of U.S. adults are trying to lose weight at any given time.



14. Which of the following is an effect that alcohol has on physical activity?

a. increases risk of heat stroke
b. all of these choices
c. impairs ability to regulate body temperature
d. increases risk of hypothermia
e. impairs fluid balance

b. all


14. A condition that often arises early in training and results in a low blood hemoglobin for a while is called ________ .

sports anemia


14. To improve your cardiorespiratory endurance, the activity you choose must be sustained for ________ minutes or longer, use most of the large muscle groups, and elevate your heart rate.



14. Which of the following statements is a guideline to help endurance athletes maximize their glucose supply?

a. Consume about 70 percent of your kcalories from carbohydrates regularly.
b. Eat protein-rich foods immediately following activity.
c. Train the muscles to store as much glucose as possible.
d. Drink glucose-rich sport drinks periodically during activities that last for 30 minutes or more.



14. Which of the following factors is an influence on fuel mixture during activity?

diet and intensity of activity


14. Athletes who are preparing for competition are often advised to drink extra fluid in the ________ immediately before the event.



14. After ________ minutes, a person who continues to exercise moderately (mostly aerobically) begins to use less and less glycogen and more and more fat for fuel.



14. Symptoms of hyponatremia include all of the following except:

a. seizure
b. diarrhea
c. vomiting
d. confusion
e. water retention

b. diarrhea


14. Which of the following is not a component of fitness?

a. strength
b. conditioning
c. flexibility
d. endurance

b. conditioning


14. Which dietary supplements is promoted to body-builders as a "fat burner" and facilitates the transfer of fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane?



14. ________ is the product of anaerobic glycolysis.



14. The progressive overload principle involves all of the following components except:

a. duration
b. intensity
c. frequency
d. age

d. age


14. Moderate-intensity activities use a preferred fuel source of ATP that is derived from ________ .



14. Some of the increasingly popular energy drinks contain amounts of caffeine equivalent to ________ cups of coffee.



14. Aerobic activity stimulates synthesis of ________ protein to facilitate efficient aerobic metabolism.



14. Repeated aerobic activity produces which of the following adaptations that permits the body to draw more heavily on fat for fuel?

a. hormone adaptations to slow the release of liver glycogen
b. all of these choices
c. heart and lung efficiency in delivering oxygen increases
d. increase in the number and size of mitochondria

b. all


14. Which of the following dietary supplements will perform as claimed?

a. sodium bicarbonate
b. chromium picolinate
c. carnitine
d. beta-hydroxymethylbutyrate
e. ribose



Which of the following statements is false?

a. Muscle endurance enables muscles to work longer.
b. Muscle strength enables muscles to work harder.
c. Cardiorespiratory endurance supports the ongoing activity of the heart and lungs.
d. Muscle endurance allows the joints to move freely reducing the risk of injury.



14. The recycling process that regenerates glucose from lactate is known as ________ .

the Cori cycle


14. Recommended protein intake for endurance athletes is ________ grams per kilogram of body weight per day.

1.2-1.4 g