Axial Skeleton

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created 6 years ago by hoovemaa
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Axial skeleton bones and markers
updated 6 years ago by hoovemaa
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1

number of bones in body

206

2

2 regions of bones

axial and appendicular

3

axial skeleton

80 total bones
includes skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage

4

appendicular skeleton

limbs and attachment points
includes pelvic and pectoral girdle

5

cranial bones

surround and protect the brain
2/3 of the skull

6

facial bone

framework of the face

7

sutures

interlocking immovable joints that connect skull bones

8

parietal bones

superior and lateral portions of skull

9

frontal bones

forehead and superior portion of the orbits

10

supraorbital margin

upper rim of each orbit

11

supraorbital foramen

opening through supraorbital margin

12

glabella

smooth area just superior to bridge of nose

13

frontal sinuses

air filled pockets within bone lateral to glabella

14

anterior cranial fossa

where anterior portion of brain sits

15

occipital bone

forms posterior and inferior part of skull

16

external occipital protuberance

knob/bump along midline

17

superior nuchal line

extends laterally from protuberance

18

inferior nuchal line

runs horizontally inferior to superior nuchal line

19

posterior cranial fossa

formed internally, contains cerebellum

20

foramen magnum

large hole for brainstem

21

occipital condyles

lateral to foramen magnum, allows head to rock/nod

22

hypoglossal canal

medial/superior to occipital condyles
passage for hypoglossal nerve

23

temporal bones

form portions of lateral and inferior skull

24

zygomatic proces

a long zygomatic bone
forms zygomatic arch (cheek bone)

25

external acoustic/auditory meatus

external ear canal

26

petrous portion

dense area,(resembles mountain ridge)

27

jugular foramen

opening for jugular vein and cranial nerves

28

carotid canals

anterior to jugular foramen
for passage of internal carotid artery

29

foramen lucerum

jagged opening for vessels/nerve passage

30

internal acoustic/auditory meatus

internal opening of ear canal

31

styloid process

needle like inferior projection for muscle and ligament attachment

32

mastoid process

rounded bump lateral and posterior to styloid process for muscle attachment

33

stylomastoid foramen

in between styloid and mastoid process, nerve passageway

34

middle cranial fossa

partially formed by temporal bones, contains temporal lobes of brain

35

sphenoid bones

span the skull, can be viewed from all angles

36

greater wings

form portion of lateral skull and part of cranial fossa

37

lesser wings

form portion of anterior cranial anterior fossa

38

sella turcica

saddle portion

39

optical canal

anterior to sella turcica
for passage of optic nerve

40

superorbital fissure

slit between greater and lesser wings
for passage of muscles

41

foramen rotundum

medial portion of greater wing

42

foramen ovale

posterolateral to foramen rotundum

43

foramen spinosum

posterolateral to foramen ovale

44

ethmoid bone

deep bone to skull
anterior to sphenoid, posterior to nasal bones

45

cribiform plates

horizontal planes on superior surface full of tiny holes

46

crista galli

superior projection

47

perpendicular plate

inferior projection
forms superior portion of the nasal septum

48

superior and middle nasal conchae

curved protrusion
extend medially into nasal cavity

49

4 major cranial sutures

coronal, squamous, sagittal, lamboid

50

coronal suture

between parietal bones and frontal bones

51

squamous suture

between parietal and temporal bone

52

sagittal bone

between left and right parietal bones

53

lamboid suture

between parietal and occipital bones

54

mandible

lower jaw

55

body

horizontal portion

56

ramus

vertical portion

57

angle

where body and ramus meet

58

coronoid process

anterior process of ramus

59

condylar process

posterior process of ramus

60

head

enlargement at the end of condylar process

61

mandibular notch

intermediate to coronoid and condylar processes

62

mandibular symphasis

fussion of both halves of the mandible

63

mental protuberance

chin

64

mandibular foramen

on medial surface of each ramus

65

mental foramen

on anteriolateral portion of the body

66

maxillae

form upper portion of jaw and central face

67

palatine process

forms anterior portion of the hard palate

68

maxillary sinus

largest of the paranasal sinuses

69

inferior orbital fissure

slit formed by multiple bones

70

infraorbital foramen

opening inferior to the orbit
for nerve passage

71

zygomatic bones

2 cheek bones

72

nasal bones

bridge of nose

73

lacrimal bones

small bones in medial walls of the orbit
where tears form

74

palatine bones

horizontal plates
form the posterior portion of hard palate

75

vomer

pendent shaped bone
forms inferior portion of nasal septum

76

inferior nasal conchae

thin curved bones in nasal cavity

77

paranasal sinus

lined with mucous membranes to help warm, moisten and filter air
keeps the skull light

78

orbits

cavities that contain eyeballs, muscle, fat and glands

79

7 bones that form the orbits

frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxilary, palatine, lacrimal, ethmoid

80

hyoid bone

U-shaped bone that sits inferior to the curve of the mandible
doesn't articulate to any other bone, held in place by ligaments
acts as a base for the tongue