Chapter 8

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Microbiology
Chapter 8
updated 7 years ago by cjsaslo
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1

Genetics is the study of

what genes are, how they carry information, how their information is expressed, and how they are replicated and passed to subsequent generations or other organisms.

2

DNA in cells exists as

a double-stranded helix

3

double-stranded helix; the two strands are held together by

by hydrogen bonds
between specific nitrogenous base pairs: AT and CG.

4

A gene is a segment of DNA

DNA

5

DNA is a sequence of

a sequence of nucleotides that codes for a functional product, usually a protein.

6

The DNA in a cell is duplicated before the cell divides

before the cell divides

7

T or False
After division each daughter cell receives the same genetic information.

True

8

Genotype is

-the genetic composition of an organism,
-its entire complement of DNA

9

Phenotype is

-the expression of the genes:
-the proteins of the cell and the properties they confer on the organism.

10

The DNA in a chromosome exists as

one long double helix one long double helix associated with various proteins that regulate
genetic activity.

11

double helix is associated with various

associated with various proteins that regulate
genetic activity.

12

What shape is bacterial DNA

circular

13

Genomics is

the molecular characterization of genomes

14

Information contained in the DNA is transcribed into RNA and translated into proteins at the ribosome.

RNA and translated into proteins at the ribosome.

15

Information contained in the DNA is translated into

translated into proteins at the ribosome.

16

. During DNA replication, the two strands of the double helix separate at the

replication fork

17

each strand is used as a template by ___________ to synthesize two new strands of DNA

DNA polymerases

18

The two new strands of DNA are matched according to the rules of

nitrogenous base pairing.

19

The result of DNA replication is

two new strands of DNA, each having a base sequence complementary
to one of the original strands.

20

Because each double-stranded DNA molecule contains one original and one new strand, the replication
process is called

semiconservative.

21

T or F
DNA is Synthesized in one direction designated 5’-3’

T

22

T or F
DNA polymerase proofreads new molecules of DNA and removes mismatched bases before continuing
DNA synthesis.

T

23

Each daughter bacterium receives a

chromosome that is virtually identical to the parent’s

24

the enzyme RNA polymerase synthesizes a strand of RNA from one strand of double-stranded DNA, which serves as a template during what process

transcription

25

RNA is synthesized from

nucleotides containing the bases A, C, G, and U

26

the process in which the information in the nucleotide base sequence of mRNA is used to dictate the amino acid sequence of a protein

Translation

27

The mRNA associates with

ribosomes, which consist of rRNA and protein.

28

Three-base segments of mRNA that specify amino acids are called

codons

29

The genetic code refers to

the relationship among the nucleotide base sequence of DNA, the corresponding
codons of mRNA, and the amino acids for which the codons code

30

The start codon

AUG, codes for methionine

31

Translation ends when

the ribosome reaches a stop codon on the mRNA

32

A mutation is a change in the

nitrogenous base sequence of DNA; that change causes a change in
the product coded for by the mutated gene.

33

Many mutations are _________

nuetral