Cengage Advantage Books: Sociology: Sociology Flashcards
As your progress, however, you will acquire a more precise understanding of ________ as the scientific study of social structure, which actually refers to patterns of social relationships.
___________ is concerned with the study of people as they interact in daily life.
______________ focuses on groups without regard to interaction of the people within. We use the term ______________ in referring to the study of societies as a whole as well as to the relationships between social structures within societies.
–the set of mind that enables individuals to see the relationship between events and their personal lives and events in their society. The __ ___ invites us to examine the intersection between personal biography social influences.
______________, which places human needs and goals at the center and __________, whose objectives to replace human oppression with greater democracy and social justice
clinical sociology (sociological practice)
involves using sociological theories, principles, and research to diagnose and measure social intervention.
the use of scientific observation and experimentation in the study of social behavior
when Comte wrote that sociology should rely on positivism, he meant that sociology should be a science based on knowledge of which we can be "positive," or sure.
the study of social stability and order
the study of social change
this distinction between social stability and social change remains at the center of modern sociology.
Marx predicted that ultimately all industrial societies would contain only 2 social classes: the __________, those who owned the means for producing wealth in industrial society and the __________, those who labored at subsistence wages for the bourgeoisie.
conflict between those controlling the means for producing wealth and those laboring for them
According to the principle of __________ __________(an idea often associated with Marx) the nature of a society is based on society's economy.
A society's economic structure determines its other systems: legal, religious, cultural, and political.
A consensus is especially characteristic of preindustrial, nonliterate, simple societies based on _______ _______- social unity that comes from a consensus of values and beliefs, strong social pressures for conformity, and dependence on tradition and family.
social unity based on a complex of highly specialized roles. these roles render society dependent on one another for goods and services.
Understanding the subjective intentions of human social behavior could be accomplished through what Weber called the method of _______ understanding social behavior by putting oneself in the place of others
research in which personal biases are not allowed to affect the research process and its outcome.
the use of knowledge, reason, planning and objectivity-in industrial society marked a change from the tradition, emotion, superstition, and personal relationships of preindustrial society
________ emphasizes the contributions (functions) performed by each part of society.
ie: family, economy, and religion are all parts of a society.
the idea that society changes yet maintains most of its original structure over time is referred to as _______ _______ a constantly changing balance among the parts
_______ _______ are intended and recognized at the time; _______ ______are unintended and unrecognized until later.
Not all elements of a society make a positive contribution. Those that have negative consequences result in _______
_______ ______ emphasizes conflict, competition, change, and constraint within a society
those with the most ______, the ability to control the behavior of others, even against their own will-get the largest share of whatever is considered valuable in a society
A _______ is something chosen to represent something else
the importance of shared symbols is reflected in the formal definition of ______ ______: the theoretical perspective that focuses on interaction among people- interaction based on mutually understood symbols
an approach that depicts human interactions as theatrical performance
presentation of self
Like actors on stage, people (the performers) present themselves -by their dress, gestures, one of voice- in such a way as to enhance their performance and create in others a favorable evaluation. Goffman labels this effort ______ _ _____
Advocates of ____ _____ focus on equal opportunity for women and heightened public awareness of women's rights
dictionary version: the feminist social theory that traces oppression of women to the fact that societies are dominated by men
is the culmination of the European Enlightenment characterized by a belief that humans are autonomous beings, that legitimate world views can be formed through reason, and that objective truth is knowable.
challenging these assumptions, ____ _____ assumes that individuals are not autonomous, that reason is an unreliable way to interpret the world, and that we cannot discover ultimate truth.
dictionary-the theory that rejects the idea that individuals are autonomous beings, that reason is reliable way to interpret the world, and that a discoverable reality exists.
post industrial society
knowledge (information) and service organization dislodge the production of goods as the major source of power and the prime mover of social life.
is the process by which increasingly permeable geographical boundaries lead different societies to share in common some economic, political, and social arrangements
begin of chap 2
scientists are expected to prevent their personal biases from influencing the the interpretation of their results.
means that a study can be repeated by other scientists. this is possible because scientists report in detail on their research methods.
tentative, testable statements of relationships among variables. These variables must be defined precisely enough to be measurable.
Scientist measure variables through the use of _____ _______- definitions of abstract concepts in terms of simpler, observable procedures.
consists of all those people with characteristics a researcher wants to study
is a limited number of cases drawn from the larger population
events occur in predictable, nonrandom ways, and one event leads to another
a political scientist once wrote, "if an explanation replies on a single cause, it is surely wrong." Events in physical or social world are generally too complex to be explained by any single factor. For this reason, scientist rely on the principle of _____ ______
is a characteristic (age, education, social class) that is subject to change
a variable that can be measured and given a numerical value
consists of a variation in kind rather than number
variables that cause something to occur
variables in which a change or effect can be measured
influences the relationship between an independent and dependent variable
exists when a change in one variable is associated with a change in the other
exists if both the independent variable and dependent variable change in the same direction
exists when variables change in opposite direction
an apparent relationship between two variables, which is actually produced by a third variable that affects both the original 2 variables
takes place in a lab; by ruling out all extraneous factors, a researcher can determine the effects if any, of an independent variable and a dependent variable
the group exposed to the experimental variable
the group not exposed to the experimental variable
participants in an experiment are matched in pairs according to all factors
which is preferable to matching, subjects are assigned to the experimental or control group on a random (chance) basis
stratified random sample
for great precision desired, A ____ _____ ______ population is divided into categories such as sex, race, or age
a written set of questions that survey participants answer by themselves
a trained interviewer asks questions and records answers
those for which a limited predetermined set of answers is possible
open ended questions
ask the respondent to answer in his or her own words
the use of previously collected information is a well respected method of obtaining data
investigates aspects of social life that cannot be measured quantitatively and that are best understood within a natural setting
the most popular approach to field research is the ____ ____
an approach to field work developed by social anthropologists, attempts a detailed and accurate description of a groups way of life
a researcher becomes a temporary member of the group being studied
a prominent example of the _____ ______ is ethnomethodology, a development in microsociology that attempts to uncover taken-for-granted social routines
a measurement technique must yield consistent results on repeated applications
the duplication of the same study to ascertain its accuracy- is closely linked to both reliability and validity in the reliability and validity problems unknown to original researchers are likely to be revealed as subsequent social scientists.
begin chap 3
is a peoples way of life that is passes from generation to generation
is a group of people living in a defined territory and participating in a common culture
are rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior
rules that cover customary ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving but lack moral overtones are called
mores (pronounced MOR-ays)
are norms of great moral significance. they are thought to to be vital to the well-being of a society
the third type of norm, are norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials. FOLKWAYS AND MORES emerge slowly and often unconsciously created, but ____ are consciously created and enforced
a ____ is a mos so important that is violation is considered repugnant. although definitions of incest vary from society to society, the incest ____ is generally regarded as the only _____ existing in all societies
_____ are rewards and punishments used to encourage conformity to NORMS. they can be formal or informal
_____ _____ are SANCTIONS that may be given only by officially designated persons, such as judges and college professors.
are sanctions that can be applied by most members of a group, they can also be positive or negative
are broad culture principles that most people in a society consider desirable
is the process of thinking, knowing, or processing information
the most important part of cognitive dimension of culture is BELIEFS -ideas concerning the nature of reality
Both the normative and cognitive dimensions are part of _____ _____- the norms, values, and beliefs of a group of people
consists of the concrete, tangible objects within a culture- automobiles, basketballs, chairs, highways, birth control pills, art, jeans.
refers to cultural guidelines publicly embraced by members of society; these are guidelines we claim to accept
refers to the actual behavior patterns
things that stand for, or represent, something else- can range from physical objects to words, sounds, smells, and tastes.
Symbolic culture is not limited to vocal, written, or material symbols. ______, whether in the form of facial expression, body movement, or posture, also carry culturally defined and shared symbolic meanings
hypothesis of linguistic relativity
language is our guide to reality, our view of the world depends on our particular language. our perception of reality is at the mercy of the words and grammatical rules of our language. and because our perceptions are different, our worlds are different. This is known as the _______ _ _____ ______
is a group of persons who share a social characteristic such as age, sex or religion
is a group that is a part of the dominant culture but differs from from it in some important respects
this movement, known as _______ accents the viewpoints, experiences, and contributions of minorities (women as well as ethnic and racial minorities)
is a subculture that deliberately and consciously opposes certain central aspects of the dominant culture
is the illegal use of violence or threats of violence to intimidate a government, a group, or an individual in pursuit of a political, religious, economic, or social goal
people who spend most of their lives with others culturally similar to themselves- who hardly ever deal with people different from themselves-will almost inevitably use their own cultural standards to judge others. this tendency to judge others in relation to one's own standards is referred to as ________
the psychological and social stress we may experience when confronted with a radically different cultural environment- is one such negative consequence
according to this perspective, we may not view values, norms, beliefs, and attitudes as correct or incorrect, desirable or undesirable; we should view them within the total cultural framework of a people and evaluate them in relation to their place within the larger cultural context of which they are a part rather than according to some alleged universal standard standard that applies across all cultures
morality (right and wrong) depends on the norms of the group of society in which they exist. an ethical relativists sees no moral absolutes
general cultural traits thought to exist in all cultures. these universals included athletic sports, cooking, courtship, division of labor, education, etiquette, funeral rites, family, goverment, hospitality, housing, incest taboos, inheritance rules, joking, language, law, medicine, marraige, mourning, music, obstetrics, property rights, and tool making
cultures develop different ways of demonstrating the same universal trait
the study of biological basis of human behavior
begin with powerpoint slides
AUGUST COMTE 1789-1857
*founder/father of Sociology
*coined the term sociology in 1838
*the principle of Cerebral Hygiene
HERBERT SPENCER 1820-1903
*survival of the fittest
*analogy of the living organism
*1st textbook in sociology
KARL MARX 1818-1883
EMILE DURKHEIM 1858-1917
*what holds a society together?
*mechanical solidarity-dependence on tradition & family
*organic solidarity-specialized roles/contacts
MAX WEBER 1864-1920
*protestant work ethic
HARRIET MARTINEAU 1802-1876
*Translated Comte's writings from French to English
*Research on women who worked in factories
JANE ADAMS 1860-1935
*Nobel Peace Prize in 1931
*Queen of Social work
W.E.B. DUBOIS 1868-1963
*wrote about race
*published each year
*editor of the NAACP's journal "Crisis