Chapter 19 Flashcards


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Anatomy and Physiology
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1

Lumen

Central blood-containing space in the vessel

2

Tunica Intima

innermost tunic, contains the endothelium (the simple squamous epithelium that lines the lumen of all vessels)

3

tunica media

middle tunic, mostly circularly arranged smooth muscle cells and sheets of elastin

4

Vasoconstriction

lumen diameter decreases as the smooth muscle contracts- allows more blood flow

5

Vasodilation

lumen diameter increases as the smooth muscle relaxes - decreases blood flow

6

tunica externa

outermost layer of a blood vessel wall, composed largely of loosley woven collagen fibers that protect and reinforce the vessel, and achor it to surrounding structure

7

Vasa Vasorum

In larger vessels, the tunica externa contains a system of these tiny blood vessels

8

Elastic Arteries

Thick-walled arteries near the heart (the aorta and its major branches) They are also known as pressure reservoirs aka: conducting arteries

9

Muscular arteries

deliver blood to specific body organs (sometimes called distributing arteries)

10

Arterioles

smallest of the arteries-lumen diameter ranging from 0.3mm down to 10 Um

11

capillaries

smallest blood vessels

12

pericytes

smooth muscle-like cells that stabilize the capillary wall and help control capillary permeability

13

continuous capillaries

abudant in skin and muscles, these are the most common and have intercellular clefts (least permeable capillary)

14

intercellular clefts

gaps of unjoined membrane that are large enough to allow limited passage of fluids and small solutes

15

fenestrated capillaries

riddled with oval pores, or fenestrations and increase permeability (fenestra=window)

16

sinusoid capillaries

highly modified, leaky capillaries found only in the liver, bone marrow, spleen, and adrenal medulla.most permeable capillary

17

stellate macrophages

remove and destroy any bacteria (can be found in sinusoid capillaries)

18

capillary beds

interweaving networks that connect arteriole and venule

19

microcirculation

flow of blood from an arteriole to a venule (through a capillary bed)

20

What are the two types of vessels that a capillary bed consists of?

1. Vascular Shunt
2 True capillaries

21

vascular shunt

short vessel that directly connects the arteriole and venule at opposite ends of the bed

22

true capillaries

actual exchange vessels; number 10-100 per capillary bed

23

terminal arteriole

an arteriole that divides into capillaries.

24

metarteriole

vessel structurally intermediate between an ateriole and a capillary (continuous with the thoroughfare channel)

25

thoroughfare channel

intermediate between a capillary and a venule (connects with the metarteriole)

26

postcapillary venule

joins with the thoroughfar channel and then drains the capillary bed

27

precapillary sphincter

surrounds the root of each true capillary at the metarteriole and acts as a valve to regulate blood flow into the capillary

28

Venules

Capillaries unite to form venules; extremely porous (like capillaries)

29

Veins

venules join to form veins; walls are always thinner and their lumens larger than those of corresponding arteries, however, veins are usually collapsed and their lumens appear slitlike

30

capacitance vessels & blood reservoirs

AKA VEINS; with their large lumens,&thin walls, veins can accomodate a fairly large blood volume.

31

How much blood supply can veins hold?

up to 65% of the body's blood supply at any time (although they are usually only partially filled)

32

Venous Valves

formed from fold sof the tunica intima, prevent blood from flowing backward

33

Varicose Veins

veins that are toruous and dilated because of incompetent (leaky) valves

34

Venous sinuses

highly specialized, flattened veins with etremely thin walls composed only of endothelium

35

anastomoses

coming together

36

Vascular anastomoses

blood vessels that form special interconnections

37

arterial anastomoses

most organs receive blood from more than one arterial branch, and arteries supplying the same territory often merge, forming arterial anastomoses

38

What do anastomoses provide?

altenbate pathways, called collateral channels (helps blood to reach a given body region)

39

arteriovenous anastomoses

meterteriole-thoroughfare channel shunts of capillary beds that connect arterioles and venules

40

venous anastomoses

veins that interconnect much more freely than arteries, and are very common

41

Blood flow

the volume of blood flowing through a vessel, or an organ

42

Blood pressure (BP)

the force per unit area exerted on a vessel wall by the contained blood (exptressed in mm Hg)

43

resistance

opposition to flow and is a measure o the amt of friction blood encounters as it passes through vessels

44

Peripheral resistance

most friction is encountered in the peripheral (systemic) circulation, well away from the heart, this is the term we use

45

Blood Viscosity

related to the thickness or "stickiness" of the blood

46

Total Blood Vessel Length

relationship betwn total blood vessel length and resistance is straightforward: the longer the vessel, the greater the resistance

47

Blood Vessel Diameter:

Blood vessel diameter changes frequently and significantly alters peripheral resistance (think of a river: water runs rapidy in the center, but slower on the sides)

48

What is the relationship formula for Flow, Pressure, and Resistance?

F=∆P/R

F=blood flow
∆P= difference in blood pressure betwn two points in circulation
R=peripheral resistance

49

systolic pressure

The pressure peak generated by ventricular contraction

50

How much does the systolic pressure average in adults?

averages 120 mm Hg

51

Diastolic Pressure

aortic valves close, preventing blood from flowing back into the heart. during this time aortic pressure drops to its lowest level

52

What is the average diastolic pressure in healthy adults?

70 to 80 mm Hg

53

Pulse Pressure

difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures

54

Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)

the pressure that propels the blood to the tissues.
MAP=diastolic pressure+ pulse pressure/3

55

What are the three functional adaptations that are critically important to venous return?

1. The muscular Pump
2. The respiratory pump
3. Sympathetic Venoconstriction

56

What vessel has the greatest drop in Blood pressure?

arterioles

57

Muscular Pump

consists of skeletal muscle activity: as skeletal muscles surrounding the deep veins contract and relax, they "mil" blood toward the heart

58

respiratory pump

moves blood up toward the heart as pressure changes in the ventral body cavity during breathing

59

Sympathetic venoconstriction

reduces the volume of blood in the veins-the capacitance vessels

60

Cardiovascular center

consists of the cardiac centers and the vasomotor center that controls the diameter of blood vessels

61

Vasomotor center

controls diameter of blood vessels

62

vasomotor fibers

vasomotor center transmits impulses at the fairly steady rate along sympathetic efferents

63

Vasomotor tone

arterioles are almost always in a state of moderate constriction

64

Baroreceptors

when arterial blood pressure rises, it activates baroreceptors. These inhibit (or bar) to the vasomotor and cardioacceleratory centers

65

What are the threemechanisms that bring about a decrease in blood pressure?

1. Arteriolar Vasodilation
2. Venodilation
3. Decreased Cardiac Output

66

Arteriolar Vasodilation

decreased output from the vasomotor centers allows arterioles to dialte

67

Venodilation

decreased output from the vasomotor center also allows veins to dilate, which shifts blood to venous reservoirs. This decreases venous return and CO (cardiac output)

68

Decreased Cardiac Output

impulses to the cardiac centers inhibit sympathetic activity and stimulate parasympathetic activity, reducing heart rate and contractile force.

69

Carotid Sinus Reflex

protects the blood supply to your brain (these are from baroreceptors)

70

Aortic Refelx

helps maintain adequate blood pressure in your systemic circuit as a whole

71

Adrenal medulla hormones

epinephrine, and norepinephrine goes to the blood; causing an increase in cardiac output and promoting generalized vasoconstriction

72

Angiotensin II

When blood pressure or blood volume are low the kidneys release renin. Renin generates Angiotensin II which stimulates intense vasoconstriction, promoting a rise in systemic blood pressure. It stimulates release of aldosterone and ADH

73

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)

this leads to a reduction in blood volume and blood pressure (vasodilation)

74

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

stimulates kidneys to conserve water.

75

Direct Renal Mechanism

alters blood volume independently of hormones

76

Renin-Angiotensin-aldesterone mechanism

through this the kidneys can also regulate blood pressure indirectly.Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II.

77

Aldosterone

a hormone that enhances renal reabsorption of sodium

78

Vital Signs

this is how clinicians assess the efficiency of a person's circulation by measuring pule and blood pressure

79

pulse

alternating expansion and recoil of arteries during each cardiac cycle allow us to feel a pressure wave

80

pressure points

the pulse points on the body that are compressed to stop blood flow into distal tissues during hemorrhage

81

auscultatory method

measure systemic arterial blood pressure indirectly in the brachial artery of the arm

82

What is the instrument used to measure blood pressure by the auscultatory method?

Sphygmomanometer

83

Hypertension

chronically elevated blood pressure

84

Hypotension

low blood pressure (below 90/60 mm Hg)

85

Primary and Secondary Hypertension

90% are Primary and only 10% are secondary. Primary hypertension is when there has been no underlying cause identified. Secondary Hypertension is when there is an identifiable condition.

86

What could cause chronic hypotension

addison's disease, hypothyroidism, sever malnutirition

87

Tissue Perfusion

Blood flow through body tissues

88

What is tissue perfusion involved in?

1. delivering oxygen and nutrients to tissue cells & removing wastes
2. exchanging gases in the lungs
3. absorbing nutrients from digestive tract
4. forming urin in kidneys

89

Autoregulation

this is how each organ or tissue manage to get the blood flow it needs. The automatic adjustment of blood flow to each tissue in proportion to the tissue's requirements at any instant.

90

Nitric Oxide (NO)

powerful vasodilator which acts via a cyclic GMP second-messenger system.

91

Endothelins

the endothelium also releases potent vasoconstrictors, called endothelins, which are among the most potent vasoconstrictors known.

92

myogenic responses

fluctuations in systemic blood pressure would cause problems for individual organs were it not for the myogenic responses of vascular smooth muscle.

93

Reactive Hyperemia

refers to the dramatically increased blood flow into a tissue that occurs after the blood supply to the area has been temporarily blocked

94

Active or Exercise Hyperemia

when muscles become active, blood flow increases (hyperemia) in direct proportion to their greater metabolic activity

95

Vasomotion

the on/off opening and closing precapillary sphincters in response to l local auto-regulatory controls

96

Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure (HPc)

tends to force fluids through capillary walls (a process called filteration) leaving behind cells and most proteins.

97

Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (HPif)

blood pressure-which forces fluid out of the capillaries is opposed by the HPif acting outside the capillaries and pushing fluid in.

98

Capillary colloid osmotic pressure (OPc)

abundant plasma proteins in capillary blood (primarily albumin molecules) develop this.

99

New filteration pressure (NFP)

this considers all the forces acting at the capillary bed.

100

Circulatory shock

any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally.

101

Hypovolemic Shock

the most common form of circulatory shock:which result from large-scale blood or fluid loss.

102

Vascular Shock

blood volume is normal, but circulation is poor as a result of extreme vasodilation.

103

Cardiogenic Shock

pump failure, occurs when the heart is so inefficient that it cannot sustain adequate circulation. (could be caused by heart attacks)

104

Blood Islands

The endothelial lining of blood vessels is formed by mesodermal cells which collect in little masses

105

What are the conducting arteries?

Elastic Arteries are sometimes called this.

106

What are the distributing arteries?

muscular arteries

107

Direct renal mechanism

alters blood volume independently of hormones

108

angiotesin II acts in 4 ways to stabilize arterial blood pressure and extracellular fluid volume. What are those ways?

1. stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone; also stimulates sodium reabsorption by kidneys
2.prods posterior pituitary to release ADH; promotes more water reabsorption by kidneys
3. triggers sensation of thirst, by activating hypothalamic thirst center
4. potent vasoconstrictor, increasing blood pressure by increasing PR

109

What is the major player in controlling local vasodilation?

NO (Nitric Oxide), often this overrides sympathetic vasoconstriction when tissues need more blood flow

110

MAP is the same everywhere in the body. true/false?

true

111

Are capillary density and blood flow greater in red fibers, or white fibers?

red (slow oxidative) fibers

112

Blood will flow into occipital sinus into the ____ and turn into the brachialcephalic vein

external jugular

113

blood in the circle of willis will flow into the _______ and then into the transverse sinus

cavernous sinus

114

Blood in the cephalic vein flows into the ________ and then into the basilic vein

median cubital vein

115

blood in the Great sa``phenous vein flows into the _____ and then into the iliac vein

femoral