Fundamentals of Radiography Chapter 7 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 9 years ago by QWERTY
1,955 views
updated 2 years ago by QWERTY
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

The degree of attenuation depends on tissue characteristics.

true

false

true

2

The dynamic display of a patient’s anatomy using x-radiation is termed:

fluoroscopy.

radiography.

image intensification.

real-time radiography.

fluoroscopy

3

The beam of photons, before it interacts with the patient, is called:

primary radiation

secondary radiation

tertiary radiation

remnant radiation

primary radiation

4

In a film-based imaging department, automatic processors are an indispensable part of departmental operations. From the choices below, which is NOT TRUE regarding automatic film processing?

They typically process images in 90 seconds.

They are maintenance-free and require annual cleaning.

They use rollers to transport film through the processing compartments.

The processing chemicals consist of developer, fixer, and wash.

They are maintenance-free and require annual cleaning.

5

X-ray film imaging has been replaced by:

computed radiography (CR).

direct digital detector technology.

digital radiography systems.

all of the above.

all of the above.

6

The x-ray tube component that stops the stream of electrons and produces the x-ray beam is called the:

cathode.

anode.

tetrode.

positode.

anode.

7

Of all of the energy traveling through the x-ray tube during a radiographic exposure, the largest percentage of this electrical energy is converted to:

x-radiation.

infrared energy.

thermal energy (heat).

mechanical energy.

thermal energy (heat).

8

Indirect capture digital radiography is unlike direct capture technology in that indirect technology uses:

amorphous selenium.

no thin-film-transistor (TFT) technology.

a scintillator material to produce light in a two-step process.

amorphous silicon bonded to amorphous selenium as a two-step process.

a scintillator material to produce light in a two-step process.

9

Both the size and the shape of an object can be distorted on a radiographic image.

true

false

true

10

The fluoroscopic image is a static image.

true

false

false

11

The overall blackening of the film is called:

contrast

density

detail

distortion

density

12

There are four primary image quality factors. They are:

SID, mAs, SOD, and kVp.

primary radiation, scatter radiation, secondary radiation, and remnant radiation.

contrast, IR exposure or density, distortion, and recorded detail.

grids, collimation, filtration, and beam restriction.

contrast, IR exposure or density, distortion, and recorded detail.

13

Materials that allow x-ray photons to travel through easily are:

radiopaque

radiolucent

latent

attenuated

radiolucent

14

The device that intercepts the exit radiation from a patient and creates the radiographic image is the:

radiographic grid.

collimator.

image receptor.

image workstation.

image receptor.

15

Inadequate mAs exposures in CR imaging technology will yield an image that is:

grainy and demonstrates quantum mottle.

magnified and distorted.

minified and distorted.

overexposed and too dark to interpret.

grainy and demonstrates quantum mottle.

16

The loss of radiographic image resolution is often referred to as “unsharpness.” All of the following contribute to total image unsharpness EXCEPT the:

size and shape of the patient’s anatomy.

pixel size of the image receptor (IR) and monitor display.

size and shape of the exposure field (collimation).

image geometry factors such as SID, OID, and focal spot size.

size and shape of the exposure field (collimation).

17

Milliampere-seconds directly control the quality of the x-ray photons produced.

true

false

false

18

Radiation that is nondiagnostic is called:

contrast

density

primary radiation

scatter radiation

scatter radiation

19

The invisible, unprocessed data on an image detector immediately after x-ray exposure form the _____ image.

remnant

manifest

primary

latent

latent

20

The inverse square law states that the intensity of a beam of radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source.

true

false

true

21

According to the inverse square law, if distance is doubled, intensity decreases to _______ the original value.

1/4

1/2

2 times

4 times

1/4

22

The large focal spot is used when fine detail is required.

true

false

false

23

A direct capture digital radiography detector uses _____ as the receptor material.

silver bromide

amorphous silicon

amorphous selenium

barium fluorohalide

amorphous selenium

24

Contrast is the chief controlling factor of exposure and density.

true

false

false

25

High contrast has a short scale with wide latitude.

true

false

false

26

All of the following are true of computed radiography (CR) EXCEPT:

it uses cassettes.

the image is recorded on an amorphous silicon digital detector plate.

the active chemical in CR plates is barium fluorohalide.

the image plates are reusable.

the image is recorded on an amorphous silicon digital detector plate.

27

Which of the following is a TRUE statement regarding kilovolts peak (kVp)? Kilovolts peak (kVp):

principally controls the quantity of x-rays produced.

has little impact on penetrability of the beam through the patient.

is a measure of the electron speed through the x-ray tube from anode to cathode.

affects both x-ray beam quantity and quality.

affects both x-ray beam quantity and quality.

28

As mAs increases, density decreases.

true

false

false

29

The process by which the nature of the primary beam is altered as it travels through the patient is called:

attenuation

remnance

scatter

photon

attenuation

30

Materials that are not easily traversed by x-ray photons are:

radiopaque

radiolucent

latent

attenuated

radiopaque

31

The x-radiation that is “left over” and exits the patient to strike the image receptor and create the image is known as _____ radiation.

remnant

primary

scatter and secondary

Grenz

remnant

32

kVp is the chief controlling factor of contrast.

true

false

true

33

The three major classifications of diagnostic radiographic imaging include each of the following except:

radiation therapy

digital imaging

fluoroscopic imaging

film/screen radiography

radiation therapy

34

Bowel gas in the abdomen would be an example of a _____ material, with regard to the x-ray beam.

radiopaque

radiolucent

radiofrequent

radioresistant

radiolucent

35

Scatter can be controlled by using an automatic processor.

true

false

false

36

To change kVp while maintaining the same exposure:

increase mAs by 15% and 1/2 kVp

increase mAs and kVp by 50%

increase kVp 15% and 1/2 mAs

decrease mAs by 15% and 1/2kVp

increase kVp 15% and 1/2 mAs

37

The beam that exits the patient is called:

primary radiation

scatter radiation

remnant radiation

attenuation

remnant radiation

38

The production of x-radiation that occurs in an x-ray tube requires the movement of negatively charged particles traveling from one side of the tube to the other. This movement of charges must occur in:

an aqueous medium.

a vacuum.

a tungsten gas environment.

any condition that exists inside the x-ray tube, including a nonvacuum.

a vacuum.

39

Detail is affected by patient motion.

true

false

true

40

Doubling the kVp doubles the exposure.

true

false

false

41

The individual packets of energy contained in the primary beam are called:

scatter

photons

density

contrast

photons

42

Digital imaging requires a filmless system.

true

false

true

43

The SID is the distance between:

the patient and the image receptor

the tube and the patient

the tube and the image receptor

the cathode and the anode

the tube and the image receptor

44

As you process a radiographic image of the abdomen of a small child, you notice a small ringlike object on the image. It appears this object is in the patient’s stomach, which is consistent with the examination history. The ring shows on the x-ray image because of its metallic density. This is the result of:

attenuation of the x-ray beam by the metallic density of the ring.

transmission of the x-ray beam through the soft metal of the ring.

electrons from the x-ray tube striking the patient.

scatter radiation from the patient.

attenuation of the x-ray beam by the metallic density of the ring.

45

The primary beam can be modified through the use of filtration and beam limitation.

true

false

true

46

Which combination would produce an mAs of 10?
200 mA, mc, 1/20 sec
100 mA, mc, 1/10 kvp
100 mA, 10 sec
200 mA, mc042-3.jpg sec

200 mA, mc, 1/20 sec

47

When radiographic images of patients are created, many exposure variables come into play to produce optimum image quality. Any change in the radiographic image impression should be the result of:

each technologist using his or her customized exposure techniques.

the radiation output of the x-ray machine.

the patient’s medical condition as reflected in the image characteristics.

the time of day the image is taken, because department business affects image quality.

the patient’s medical condition as reflected in the image characteristics.

48

Kilovoltage peak directly controls the quality of the x-ray photons produced.

true

false

true

49

An effective method to overcome superimposition of patient anatomy on a radiograph is to:
1. increase the SID.
2. angle the x-ray tube.
3. decrease the SOD.
4. rotate the patient into an oblique position.
5. angle the image receptor.

1 and 3 only

2 and 5 only

2 and 4 only

1 and 5 only

2 and 4 only

50

All of the following are related EXCEPT:

source of electrons.

means for setting electrons in high-speed motion.

a target to stop or suddenly decelerate the electron travel.

a lead barrier to stop the production of heat formation.

a lead barrier to stop the production of heat formation.

51

The distinct representation of an object’s true borders is called:

contrast

density

detail

distortion

detail

52

The invisible image recorded on a film that has not been processed is what type of image?

radiopaque

attenuated

latent

radiolucent

latent

53

The misrepresentation of an object’s true size or shape is called:

contrast

density

detail

distortion

distortion

54

The radiographer has control of which one of the following technical factors?

mAs

kVp

SID

all of the above

all of the above

55

Automatic processing of radiographic images requires approximately:

30 seconds

1.5 minutes

3 minutes

90 minutes

1.5 minutes

56

The total quantity of x-ray photons produced during an exposure is determined by the:

kVp.

SID.

milliamperage (mA).

mAs.

mAs.

57

The darkness of a film image is referred to as radiographic density. Given the three sets of mAs calculations that follow, all three should yield the same degree of radiographic density.
Exposure 1: 200 mA ´ 0.05 ms
Exposure 2: 100 mA ´ 0.10 ms
Exposure 3: 400 mA ´ 0.025 ms
This is known as:

the inverse square law.

the kVp/mAs ratio.

mA/mAs proportionality.

mAs reciprocity.

mAs reciprocity.

58

As you position patients for various radiographic procedures, you will occasionally angle the x-ray tube assembly. This intentional use of tube angles is referred to as:

size distortion.

size minification.

shape distortion.

magnification.

shape distortion.

59

As you perform a portable chest radiograph, the optimal SID of 40 inches is unattainable because of orthopedic supports over the patient. It is necessary for you to shorten the SID to 34 inches. A professional radiographer should do which of the following?

Indicate the shorter SID on the examination notes to the radiologist.

Prop the patient up to increase the distance 6 inches from the image receptor.

Angle the tube cephalad to compensate for the shorter SID.

Angle the tube 15 degrees caudad to compensate for the SID.

Indicate the shorter SID on the examination notes to the radiologist.

60

The visible difference between densities is called:

contrast

density

detail

distortion

contrast