A characteristic or measure obtained by using the data values from a sample
A characteristic or measure obtained by using all the data values from a specific population
ymbol for population mean
symbol for sample mean
The median is ______________ the mean by extrememly high or extrememly low values.
affected less than
The mean is affected by _______.
extremely high or low values, called outliers, and may not be the appropriate average to use in these situations.
n a positively skewed or right-skewed distribution the "tail" is _____
to the right
In a negatively skewed or left-skewed distribution the "tail" is _____
to the left
Data values are evenly distributed on both sides of the mean; the distribution is unimodal; the mean, median and mode are the same and are at the center of the distribution
he symbol for population standard deviation
the symbol for sample standard deviation
he symbol for sample variance
he symbol for population variance
When the standard deviation is large,
he more variable the data are.
Coefficient of Variation is ________________________ .
used to compare standard deviation when the units are different
Chebyshev theorem _____________ require a specific distribution.
Empirical Rule _______ require a bell-shaped/symmetric distribution
A student with a percentile rank of 81 would mean that the student ____________ of the students.
did better than 81%
A z-score represents __________
the number of standard deviation that a data value falls above or below the mean
An outlier is _____________ .
an extremely high or extremely low data value when compared with the rest of the data values.
A two-column chart listing the categories
Total relative frequency=1
A bar chart with the bars organized from most to least
A circle segmented based on relative frequencies as percentages.
The set of numbers we are determining the frequency
smallest & largest numbers that can be included in a class
: the range of numbers that can be in a class
: are used to make sure we do not overlap the class limits
the middle of the class
(largest data value - smallest value)/# classes*
Class width =
single value for the class
range of values for the class
The sum of the frequencies up to and including that class
describe the sample/population
inferance about the sample or population
a characteristic or attribute that can assume different variables
occur by chance
are the values the variables can be
each individual value
is all the data
ex: zip code
gender, height, weight
often measurements usually a range
variables that are assoiciated with what we are trying to measure and influence our outcome
samples in which each subject did not have the same chance of being selected
the 1st subject is selected than every 5th subject after that
subjects are split into groups or strata and from each group are selected at random
the population can naturally be classified into groups or clusters
the group we leave alone
the group the treatment is given
the variable that explains our response
the vraiable that measures the response
the treatment applies is unknown
subject patient only doesnt know the treatment
subject/patient and doctor doesnt know the treatment
the sample may not be representative of the population
the word average takes on different meansings (mean, median, mode)
the results can be reported in such a way that makes it appear horrific
changing the subject
the statistics may not be compared to anything and is therefore detached
often times studies people imply a product may benefit you in one way or another