List of Microbiology Terms and Definitons

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List of Common Microbiology Terms and there meanings.
updated 9 years ago by jncanf
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1

Abiotic Factors

Non-living factors that can affect life, like soil, nutrients, climate, wind etc.

2

Absorption Field

An organized system of meticulously constructed narrow trenches, which are partially filled with washed gravel or crushed stone, into which a pipe is placed. Discharges from septic tanks are passed through these trenches.

3

Acetogenic Bacterium

An aerobic, gram negative bacteria, that is rod-shaped, which is made of non-sporogenous organisms that produce acetic acid as a waste product.

4

Acetylene Block Assay

Determines the release of nitrous oxide gas from acetylene treated soil, which is used to estimate denitrification.

5

Acetylene Reduction Assay

This is used to estimate nitrogenase activity by measuring the rate of reduction of ethylene to acetylene.

6

Acid Soil

Soil which has a pH value lesser than 6.6

7

Acidophile

An organism that grows well in an acidic medium (up to a pH of 1).

8

Actinomycete

These are Gram positive, nonmotile, nonsporing, noncapsulated filaments that break into bacillary and coccoid elements. They resemble fungi, and most are free living, particularly in soil.

9

Actinorhizae

The association present between actinomycetes and roots of plants.

10

Activated Sludge

Sludge particles which are produced in raw or settled wastewater, by the growth of organisms in aeration tanks. This is all done in the presence of dissolved oxygen. This sludge contains living organisms that can feed on incoming wastewater

11

Activation Energy

The amount of energy required to bring all molecules in one mole of a substance, to their reactive state, at a given temperature

12

Active Carrier

An infected person who has visible clinical symptoms of a disease, and is capable of transmitting the disease to other individuals.

13

Active Site

The location on the surface of the enzyme where the substrate binds.

14

Adjuvant

The material added to an antigen to increase its immunogenicity, for example, alum

15

Aerobic

This includes organisms that require molecular oxygen to survive (aerobic organisms), an environment that has molecular oxygen, and processes that happen only in the presence of oxygen (aerobic respiration).

16

Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthesis

Photosynthetic process which takes place under aerobic conditions, but which does not result in the formation of oxygen.

17

Aerotolerant Anaerobes

Microbes that can survive in both, aerobic and anaerobic conditions, because they obtain their energy by fermentation.

18

Aflatoxin

A toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which contaminate groundnut seedlings. This is said to be a cause of hepatic carcinoma.

19

Agar

A dried hydrophilic, colloidal substance extracted from red algae species, used as a solid culture media for bacteria and other micro-organisms. Also used as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis

20

Agarose

Agarose is obtained from seaweed and is used as a resolving medium in electrophoresis. It consists of non-sulfated linear polymer, which contains D-galactose and 3:6-anhydro-L-galactose alternately.

21

Agglutinates

The visible clumps that are formed as a result of an agglutination reaction.

22

Agglutination Reaction

The process of clumping together, in suspension of antigen bearing cells, micro-organisms, or particles in the presence of specific antibodies called agglutinins. This leads to the formation of an insoluble immune complex.

23

Airborne Transmission

A type of transmission, wherein the organism is suspended in or spreads its infection by air.

24

Akinete

A resting non-motile, dormant, thick-walled spore state of cyanobacteria and algae

25

Alcoholic Fermentation

A fermentation process that produces alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide from sugars.

26

Alga

Phototrophic eukaryotic micro-organisms, that maybe unicellular or multicellular. These include phaeophyta: brown algae, spirogyra and red algae.

27

Aliphatic

Pertaining to any member of one of the two major groups of organic compounds, with the main carbon structure as a straight chain

28

Alkaline Soil

Soil having pH greater than 7.3.

29

Alkalophile

Organisms that have an affinity for alkaline media, thus, growing best in such conditions

30

Allochthonous Flora

Organisms that are not originally found in soil, but reach there by precipitation, sewage, diseased tissue and other such means. They do not contribute much ecologically.

31

Allosteric Site

A non-active site on the enzyme body, where a non-substrate compound binds. This may result in conformational changes at the active site.

32

Allotype

Any of various allelic variants of a protein, characterized by antigenic differences.

33

Alpha Hemolysis

A partial clearing zone, greenish in color, around a bacterial colony that grows on blood agar.

34

Alpha-proteobacteria

One of the five sub-groups of proteobacteria, each with distinctive 16S rRNA sequences. Mostly contains oligotrophic proteobacteria, many of which have distinctive morphological features.

35

Alternative Complement Pathway

A pathway of complement activation, including the C3-C9 components of the classical pathway. It is independent of antibody activity.

36

Alveolar Macrophage

A highly active and aggressive phagocytic macrophage, located on the epithelial lining of the lung alveoli, which ingests and destroys any inhaled particles and micro-organisms.

37

Amensalism (Antagonism)

A type of symbiosis, wherein one population is adversely affected, while the other is unaffected

38

Ames Test

A test that uses a special strain of salmonella to test chemicals for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity

39

Amino Acid Activation

The first stage of synthesis of proteins, where the amino acid is attached to transfer RNA.

40

Amino Group

The monovalent radical NH2, attached to a carbon skeleton, as seen in amines and amino acids.

41

Aminoacyl or Acceptor Site (A site)

The site on the ribosome that contains an aminoacyl-tRNA at the beginning of the elongation cycle during protein synthesis.

42

Ammonia Oxidation

A test which is conducted during manufacturing process, to evaluate ammonia oxidation rate for nitrifiers.

43

Ammonification

Liberation of ammonia by micro-organisms acting on organic nitrogenous compounds

44

Amoeba

A minute protozoan, occurring as a single cell with a nucleus, that changes shape by extruding its cytoplasm, leading to the formation of pseudopodia, by means of which it absorbs food and moves

45

Amoeboid Movement

Movement by means of extrusions of the cytoplasm, leading to formation of foot-like processes called pseudopodia.

46

Amphibolic Pathways

Metabolic pathways that function both anabolically, as well as catabolically.

47

Amphitrichous

A cell which has a single flagellum at each end

48

Amphotericin B

An antibiotic derived from streptomyces nodosus which is effective against many species of fungi and certain species of leishmania.

49

Anaerobic

Refers to organisms that survive in the absence of oxygen (anearobic organisms), the absence of molecular oxygen, processes occurring in the absence of oxygen like anearobic respiration.

50

Anamorph

A stage of fungal reproduction, where cells are asexually formed by the process of mitosis.

51

Anaplerotic Reactions

Reactions that help replenish intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle when their reserves are depleted.

52

Anergy

Decreased responsiveness to antigens, to the extent that there is an inability to react to substances that are expected to be antigenic

53

Anion Exchange Capacity

Total exchangeable anions that a soil can adsorb. The unit used to express the amount is in centimoles of negative charge per kilogram of soil.

54

Annotation

The process of determining the exact location of specific genes in a genome map

55

Anoxic

A condition or state which is devoid of oxygen.

56

Anoxygenic Photosynthesis

A type of photosynthesis where oxygen is not produced. This phenomenon is seen in green and purple bacteria.

57

Antagonist

A drug that binds to a hormone, neurotransmitter, or another drug, thus, blocking the action of the other substance.

58

Antheridium

The male gametangium found in phylum Oomycota (kingdom Stramenopila) and phylum Ascomyta (kingdom Fungi)

59

Anthrax

An often fatal and infectious disease, caused by ingestion or inhalation of spores of Bacillus anthracis, which are normally found in soil. It is acquired by humans through contaminated wool or animal products or by inhalation of airborne spores

60

Anthropogenic

Something that is derived from human activities.

61

Antibiosis

Lysis of an organism brought about by metabolic products of the antagonist. This can be caused by enzymes, lytic agents or other toxic compounds

62

Antibiotic

A chemical substance produced by a microorganism, which has the capacity to inhibit the growth of, or kill other micro-organisms

63

Antibody

An immunoglobulin molecule that reacts with a specific antigen that induced its synthesis and with molecules that have a similar structure

64

Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC)

A type of reaction wherein, cells with Fc receptors that recognize the Fc region of the bound antibody, kill the antibody-coated target cells.

65

Anticodon Triplet

A triplet of nucleotides in transfer RNA that is complementary to the codon in messenger RNA.

66

Antigen

Any substance capable of instigating the immune system into action, inciting a specific immune response and of reacting with the products of that response.

67

Antimetabolite

A substance that interferes with a specific metabolic pathway, by inhibiting a key enzyme, due its resemblance with the normal enzyme substrate.

68

Antimicrobial Agent

An agent that has the capacity to kill or inhibit the growth of micro-organisms

69

Antisense RNA

One of the strands of a double-stranded molecule, which does not directly encode the product, but is complementary to it, thus, inhibiting its activity.

70

Antiseptic

A substance that inhibits the growth and development of micro-organisms, but does not necessarily kill them.

71

Aplanospore

A spore that is formed during asexual reproduction, which is nonflagellated and nonmotile.

72

Apoenzyme

A protein part of an enzyme that is separable from the prosthetic group (the coenzyme).

73

Apoptosis

A pattern of cell death which is often called 'programmed death' or 'suicide of cells', wherein the cell breaks up into fragments, which are membrane bound. These fragments are then eliminated by phagocytosis. This is a protective mechanism, by which the cell prevents spread of infection to other cells by sacrificing itself.

74

Aporepressor

A product of regulator genes, that combines with the corepressor to form the complete repressor.

75

Arbuscule

Special structure formed in the root cortical cells by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The structure formed resembles a tree.

76

Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity

A type of temporary immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies produced by another organism or by in vitro methods, into the body.

77

Aseptic Technique

Procedures that are performed under strict sterile conditions. These procedures maybe laboratory procedures such as microbiological cultures.

78

Assimilatory Nitrate Reduction

Reduction of nitrate to compounds like ammonium, for the synthesis of amino acids and proteins.

79

Associative Dinitrogen Fixation

An enhanced rate of dinitrogen fixation, brought about by a close relationship between free-living diazotrophic organisms and a higher plant.

80

Associative Symbiosis

Interaction between two dissimilar organisms or biological systems, which is normally mutually beneficial.

81

Autogenous Infection

An infection which occurs due to the microbiota of the patient himself.

82

Autoimmune Disease

A disease where the target is the body's own tissues, that is, there is attacking of self-antigens.

83

Autoimmunity

A condition where a specific humoral or cell mediated immune response is initiated against the constituents of the body's own tissues. It normally leads to hypersesitivity reactions, and if it persists, can even escalate to an autoimmune disease.

84

Autolysins

A lysin that originates in an organism, which is capable of destroying its own cells and tissues.

85

Autoradiography

Making a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording the radiation emitted by it on a photographic plate. The radiation is emitted by radioactive material within the object or tissue.

86

Autotrophic Nitrification

The combined nitrification action of two autotrophic organisms, one converting ammonium to nitrite and the other oxidizing nitrite to nitrate.

87

Auxotroph

A mutated type of organism that requires specific organic growth factors, in addition to the carbon source present in a minimal medium.

88

Axenic

Pure cultures of micro-organisms, that is, which are not contaminated by any foreign organisms.

89

Axial Filament

Found in spirochetes, it is the organ of motility.

90

B-cell (B lymphocyte)

Bursa-dependent lymphocytes which are precursors of antibody-producing cells (plasma cells) and the cells primarily responsible for humoral immunity.

91

B-cell Antigen Receptor (BCR)

The membrane which is formed of membrane immunoglobulin or surface immunoglobulin, which allows a B-cell to detect, when a specific antigen is present in the body, and triggers B-cell activation.

92

Bacteria

A domain that contains prokaryotic cells that are not multicellular. Read more on bacteria.

93

Bacteremia

Presence of bacteria in the blood.

94

Bacterial Artificial Chromosome

A cloning vector that is derived from E. coli, which is used to clone foreign DNA fragments in E. coli.

95

Bacterial Photosynthesis

A mode of metabolism, which is light-dependent and where carbon dioxide is reduced to glucose, which is used for energy production and biosynthesis. It is an anaerobic reaction.

96

Bactericide

A substance that kills bacteria

97

Bacteriochlorophyll

A light absorbing pigment found in phototrophic bacteria, like green sulfur and purple sulfur bacteria.

98

Bacteriocin

Substances that are produced by bacteria which kill other strains of bacteria by inducing a metabolic block.

99

Bacteriorhodopsin

A protein involved in light mediated ATP synthesis, which contains retinal. It is one of the main characteristics of archaebacteria.

100

Bacteriostatic

An agent that inhibits the growth or multiplication of bacteria, but does not kill them.

101

Bacteroid

A genus of bacteroides, these are Gram negative, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria which are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, urogenital and intestinal cavities of animals and humans.

102

Baeocytes

Reproductive cells formed by cyanobacteria through multiple fission. They are small and spherical in shape.

103

Balanced Growth

Microbial growth where all cellular constituents are synthesized at constant rates, in relation to each other.

104

Barophile

An organism that thrives in conditions of high hydrostatic pressure.

105

Barotolerant

An organism that can tolerate high hydrostatic pressure, although it will grow better under normal pressure.

106

Basal Body

A cylindrical structure that attaches the flagella to the cell body at the base of prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms.

107

Basal Medium

A basal medium allows the growth of many types of micro-organisms which do not require special nutrient supplements.

108

Base Composition

The proportion of total bases consisting of guanine plus cytosine or thymine plus adenine base pairs.

109

Basidioma

Fruiting body that produces the basidia.

110

Basidiospore

The sexual spore of the Basidiomycotina, which is formed on the basidium.

111

Batch Culture

A culture of micro-organisms which is obtained by inoculating a dish containing a single batch of medium.

112

Batch Process

A treatment procedure wherein, a tank or reactor is filled, the solution is treated, and the tank is emptied. Batch processes are mostly used to cleanse, stabilize, or condition chemical solutions for use in industries.

113

Benthic Zone

The ecological region at the lowest level of a water body, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.

114

Beta Hemolysis

A clear zone seen around a bacterial colony growing on blood agar.

115

Bio-Tower

A tower filled with a media similar to a rachet or plastic rings, where air and water are forced up the tower by a counterflow movement. It is an attached culture system.

116

Bioaccumulation

Intracellular accumulation of chemical substances in living tissue.

117

Bioaugmentation

Addition to the micro-organism's environment that can metabolize and grow on specific organic compounds.

118

Bioavailability

The extent to which a drug or other substance becomes available to the target tissue after administration.

119

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

The amount of dissolved oxygen consumed in five days by biological processes breaking down organic matter. It is a test that measures the oxygen consumed (in mg/L) over five days at 20 degrees Celsius.

120

Biodegradable

The property by which a substance is capable of being degraded by biological processes, like bacterial or enzymatic action.

121

Biodegradation

The process of breakdown of substances by chemical reactions, thus rendering these substances less harmful to the environment.

122

Bioinsecticide

A pathogen (either bacteria, virus or fungi) used to kill or inhibit the activity of unwanted insect pests.

123

Bioluminescence

The production of light in living organisms by the enzyme luciferase.

124

Biomagnification

Increase in the concentration of a chemical substance, as its position progresses in the food chain.

125

Biostimulation

A process which helps catalyze the activity of micro-organisms involved in biodegradation

126

Biosynthesis

Production of cellular constituents from simpler compounds.

127

Biotransformation

The chemical alterations of a drug, occurring in the body, due to enzymatic activity.

128

Biotrophic

Close associations seen between two different organisms, that work mutually to benefit each other.

129

Bioventing

A procedure where the subsurface is aerated to enhance biological activity of naturally occurring micro-organisms in the soil.

130

Blastomycosis

An infection caused due to Blastomyces dermatitidis, it predominantly affects skin, lungs and bones.

131

Burst size

The number of phages ejected by a host cell over the course of its lytic life cycle.

132

Butanediol Fermentation

A kind of fermentation found in Enterobacteriaceae family, where 2,3-Butanediol is a major product.

133

Capsid

The outer proteinaceous coat of a virus.

134

Capsomere

A protein sub-unit of the capsid of a virus.

135

Carbon Cycle

The cycle where carbon-dioxide is taken in and converted to organic compunds by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, after which it is partially incorporated into sediments, and then returned to the atmosphere by respiration or combustion

136

Carbon Fixation

Conversion of carbon-dioxide and other single carbon compounds to organic compunds such as carbohydrates.

137

Carbon-Nitrogen (C/N) ratio

Ratio of carbon mass to nitrogen mass in soil or other organic material.

138

Carboxyl Group

The -COOH group found attached to the main carbon skeleton in certain compounds, like carboxylic acids and fatty acids.

139

Carboxysomes

Polyhedral cell inclusions which form the key enzyme of the Calvin cycle.

140

Carcinogen

An often mutated substance which is implicated as one of the causing agents of cancer.

141

Catabolism

A process by which complex substances are broken down into simpler compounds, often accompanied by the release of energy.

142

Catabolite Repression

Transcription-level inhibition of inducible enzymes by glucose, or other easily available carbon sources.

143

Cell-mediated Immunity

Immunity resulting from destruction of foreign organisms and infected cells by the active action of T-lymphocytes on them. It can be acquired by individuals by the transfer of cells.

144

Cellular Slime Molds

Slime molds with a vegetative phase containing amoeboid cells that come together to form a pseudoplasmodium.

145

Cellulitis

A diffused inflammation of the soft or connective tissue, in which a thin and watery exudate spreads through tissue spaces, often leading to ulceration and abscess formation.

146

Cephalosporin

A group of broad-spectrum, penicillinase resistant antibiotics, derived from Cephalosporium. Read more on different types of antibiotics.

147

Chaperonin

Heat shock proteins that oversee correct folding and assembly of polypeptides in bacteria, plasmids, eukaryotic, cytosol, and mitochondria.

148

Chelate

A chemical compound in which a metallic ion is firmly bound into a ring within the chelating molecule. Chelates are used in metal poisoning.

149

Chemoautotroph

Organisms that obtain their enegry from the oxidation of inorganic chemicals and other carbon compounds.

150

Chemoheterotroph

Organisms that obtain energy and carbon from the oxidation of organic compunds.

151

Chemolithotroph

Living organisms that obtain their energy from oxidation of inorganic compunds, which act as electron donors.

152

Chemoorganotroph

Organisms that obtain energy and electrons from the oxidation of organic compounds.

153

Chemostat

A continuously used culture device, controlled by limited amounts of nutrients and dilution rates.

154

Chemotaxis

Movement of a motile organism under the influence of a chemical. It maybe attracted towards the chemical or maybe repulsed by it.

155

Chemotrophs

Organisms that obtain their energy by the oxidation of chemical compounds.

156

Chlamydospore

A thick walled intercalary or terminal asexual spore which is not shed. It is formed by rounding up of a cell.

157

Chronic Carrier

An individual carrying a pathogen over an extended period of time.

158

Chytrid

A fungus belonging to the genus Chytridomycota. It is spherical in shape and has rhizoids, which are short, thin filamentous branches, that resemble fine roots.

159

Cilia

Minute hairlike extensions present on a cell surface, which move in a rhythmic manner.

160

Ciliate

A protozoan that moves with the help of cilia.

161

Clarification

The process of purification of water, where suspended material in the water is removed. It can be done by using sedimentation, filtration or by the use of adsorbing chemicals like alum.

162

Clone

Cells which have descended from a single parent cell. Organisms having identical copies of DNA structure, which is obtained by replication.

163

Colonization

Establishment of an entire community of micro-organisms at a designated site.

164

Colorless Sulfur Bacteria

A group of nonphotosynthetic bacteria that oxidize sulfur compounds, thus deriving their energy by this process.

165

Combinatorial Biology

The process of transfer of genetic material from one microorganism to another. Mostly used to synthesize products such as antibiotics. It is also used in genetic engineering.

166

Cometabolism

Transformation of a substrate by a microorganism without deriving energy or nutrients from the substrate.

167

Competent

The ability to take up DNA.

168

Complementary DNA

A DNA copy of any RNA molecule, like mRNA or tRNA

169

Complex Viruses

Viruses with capsids that are neither icosahedral nor helical. They have a complicated symmetry.

170

Conditional Mutations

Mutations occurring only under certain specific conditions.

171

Conidiospore

A thin-walled, asexual spore seen on hyphae which is not contained in sporangium.

172

Conjugants

Mating partners that participate in conjugation, which is a type of sexual reproduction, seen in protozoans.

173

Conjugative Plasmid

A self transmissible plasmid, or a plasmid that can encode all functions required to bring about its conjugation.

174

Consortium

Two or more members working together, where each organism benefits from the other, thus often performing functions that may not be possible to carry out individually.

175

Constitutive Enzyme

Enzymes synthesized in the cell, irrespective of the environmental conditions surrounding the cell.

176

Cosmid

A plasmid vector which can be packed in a phage capsid. It is useful for cloning large fragments of DNA.

177

Cyanobacterium

A photosynthetic, nitrogen fixing bacteria which includes the blue-green bacteria.

178

Cyst

Resting stage of certain bacteria and protozoans, wherein the entire cell is surrounded by a protective layer.

179

Cytokine

Non-antibody proteins released by a cell when it comes in contact with specific antigens.

180

Cytoplasm

The protoplasm of a cell, exclusive of the nucleus. Read more on the structure and functions of cytoplasm.

181

Cytoplasmic Membrane

A selectively permeable membrane which is present around the cytoplasm of the cell.

182

Decomposition

Chemical breakdown of a compound into smaller and simpler compounds by micro-organisms.

183

Defined Medium

A medium whose quantitative and chemical composition is exactly known.

184

Degradation

Process by which a compound is transformed into simpler compounds.

185

Denaturation

Process by which double stranded DNA unwinds into two single strands.

186

Denitrification

Reduction of nitrate or nitrite into simpler nitrogenous compounds like molecular nitrogen or nitrogen oxides.

187

Derepressible Enzyme

Enzyme produced in the absence of a specific inhibitory compound.

188

Dew point

The temperature to which air must be cooled to bring about the condensation of water vapor.

189

Diazotroph

Organism capable of using dinitrogen as its sole nitrogen source.

190

Differential Medium

A medium with certain indicators, which helps distinguish between different chemical reactions during growth of organisms on it.

191

Diffused Air Aeration

A diffused air activated sludge plant takes air, compresses it and discharges it with force, below the surface of water.

192

Dikaryon

When two nuclei are present in the same hyphal compartment (they maybe homokaryon or heterokaryon), it is known as dikaryon.

193

Dilution Plate Count Method

A method of estimating the number of viable micro-organisms in a sample.

194

Dinitrogen Fixation

Conversion of molecular dinitrogen into ammonia and other organic combinations useful in other biological processes.

195

Direct Count

Using direct microscopic examination to determine the number of micro-organisms present in a given mass of soil.

196

Disinfectant

An agent that kills micro-organisms.

197

DNA Fingerprinting

Techniques by which possible differences between different DNA samples can be assessed.

198

Dolipore Septum

Specialized cross-wall that separates hypha of fungi belonging to the genus Basidiomycota.

199

Domain

The highest level of biological classification which goes beyond kingdoms. The three domains of biological organisms are Bacteria, Eukarya, and Archaea.

200

Doubling Time

The time needed for a certain population to double in number.

201

Endoenzyme

Enzyme that acts along the internal portion of a polymer.

202

Endonuclease

The endoenzyme responsible for breaking the phosphodiester bonds in a nucleic acid molecule.

203

Endophyte

An organism, which maybe parasitic or symbiotic, with a plant that is grown within.

204

Endospore

A cell which is formed by certain gram-positive bacteria in unfavorable conditions. An endospore is extremely resistant to heat and other harmful agents.

205

Enhanced Rhizosphere Degradation

Enhanced activity of micro-organisms involved with biodegradation of contaminants near plant roots which is brought about by compounds exuded by the plant roots.

206

Enrichment Culture

Technique wherein environmental conditions are altered to aid the growth of a specific organism or group of organisms.

207

Enteric Bacteria

These are bacteria present in the intestinal tract of humans and other animals. They maybe physiologic or pathologic.

208

Episome

An extrachromosomal replicating genetic element found in certain bacteria.

209

Epitope

An antigenic determinant of known structure. It is the region of the antigen to which the variable region of the antibody binds.

210

Ericoid Mycorrhizae

The type of mycorrhizae found in Ericales plants. These hyphae are capable of penetrating cortical cells.

211

Estuaries

Water bodies located at river ends. They are subjected to tidal fluctuations.

212

Eubacteria

A genus of bacteria belonging to the family Propionibacteriaceae, found as saprophytes in soil and water.

213

Exoenzyme

An enzyme which acts outside the cell that secretes it.

214

Exons

The region of a split DNA that codes for RNA.

215

Extracellular

Outside the cell.

216

Exudate

A fluid high in protein and cellular debris which has escaped from blood vessels, usually as a result of inflammation.

217

Facultative Organism

An organism which is able to adjust to a particular circumstance or has the ability to take up different roles in a process.

218

Feedback Initiation

Inhibition by an end product of the biosynthetic pathway involved in its synthesis.

219

Fertilizer

Any organic or inorganic material added to the soil to enhance the growth of plants.

220

Field Capacity

Content of water remaining in the soil after being saturated with water.

221

Filamentous

In the form of very long rods, mostly seen in bacteria. Seen as branching strands in fungi.

222

Fimbria

Short filamentous structure present on a bacterial cell, involved with adhesion of the bacteria to other surfaces it comes in contact with.

223

Frustule

Siliceous wall and protoplasm seen in diatoms.

224

Fulvic Acid

The yellow organic material that remains behind after removal of humic acid by the process of acidification.

225

Fungistasis

Suppression of growth of new fungal cells, due to excessive competition for nutrients, or due to the presence of excessive inhibitory compounds in the soil.

226

Fungus

Eukaryotic heterotrophic organisms that live as saprophytes or parasites. This group includes mushrooms, yeast and molds. They have a rigid cell wall.

227

Fluorescent Antibody

This is a laboratory test that is done, wherein antibodies are tagged with fluorescent dye to detect the presence of micro-organisms.

228

Gas Vacuole

A sub:cellular organelle, found only in prokaryotes, which are gas filled vesicles.

229

Gene Cloning

Isolation of a desired gene from an organism and its replication in large amounts. It is used extensively in DNA research.

230

Gene Probe

A strand of nucleic acid which can be labeled and hybridized to a complementary molecule from a mixture of other nucleic acids. It is helpful in DNA sequencing.

231

Generation Time

The time required for a population to double in number.

232

Genetic Code

The information on the DNA, which is required for the synthesis of proteins.

233

Glycosidase

The enzyme responsible for hydrolizing a glucosidic linkage between two sugar molecules.

234

Gram Stain

A differential stain that divides bacteria into two groups, as Gram positive and Gram negative, depending on the ability of the organism to retain crystal violet when decolorized with an organic solvent like ethanol.

235

Growth

An increase in the number of cells, and the size and constituents present in the cells.

236

Growth Factor

Organic compound essential for growth which is required in trace amounts, and which cannot be synthesized by the organism itself.

237

Growth Rate

The rate at which growth occurs.

238

Growth Rate Constant

Slope of log10 of the number of cells per unit volume plotted against time.

239

Growth Yield Coefficient

Quantity of carbon formed per unit of substrate carbon consumed.

240

Halophile

An organism that thrives, or at least which can survive in a saline environment.

241

Halotolerant

An organism that can survive in a saline environment, but does not require a saline environment for growth.

242

Hapten

A substance not inducing antibody formation, but which is able to combine with a specific antibody.

243

Heterokaryon

Hypha that contains at least two genetically dissimilar nuclei.

244

Heterolactic Fermentation

A kind of lactic acid fermentation, wherein various sugars are fermented into different products.

245

Heterothallic

Hyphae that are incompatible with each other, thus requiring another compatible hypha to mate with, to form a dikaryon or a diploid.

246

Heterotrophic Nitrification

The oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate by heterotrophic organisms.

247

Hexose Monophosphate Pathway

A metabolic pathway involving the oxidative decarboxylation of glucose:6:phosphate.

248

Holomictic

These are those lakes, wherein the water in them at some point of time will have a uniform temperature and density from top to bottom, thus allowing the lake waters to mix completely.

249

Holomorph

A fungus which consists of all sexual and asexual stages in its life cycle.

250

Homofermentation

A type of fermentation where there is only one type of end product generated.

251

Homokaryon

A fungal hypha containing nuclei which are genetically identical.

252

Homolactic Fermentation

A type of lactic acid fermentation, in which all sugars involved are converted into lactic acid.

253

Homothallic

Hyphae that are self:compatible, that is, sexual reproduction occurs in the same organism by meiosis and genetic recombination. Fusion of these hyphae lead to the formation of dikaryon or diploid.

254

Host

An organism that can harbor or nourish another organism.

255

Heterofermentation

Any fermentation where there is more than one main end product.

256

Humic Acid

Dark colored organic material extracted from the soil by the use of reagents and which is precipitated by acid.

257

Humic Substances

High molecular weight substances formed by secondary synthesis reactions, for example, humic acid and fulvic acid.

258

Humification

The process of conversion of organic residues into humic substances by biochemical processes.

259

Hybridization

Natural or artificial construction of a duplex nucleic acid molecule by complementary base pairing between two nucleic acid strands derived from different sources.

260

Hydrocarbon

An organic compound containing carbon and hydrogen only.

261

Hydrogen Oxidizing Bacterium

These are bacteria that oxidize hydrogen for energy and synthesize carbohydrates, using carbon dioxide as their source of carbon in the absence of other organic compounds.

262

Hyperparasite

Parasite that feeds on another parasite.

263

Hyperthermophile

An organism that thrives in temperatures ranging around 80 degrees Celsius or more.

264

Hypolimnion

This is the dense, bottom layer of water, that lies below the thermocline, in a thermally stratified lake.

265

Illuviation

Repositioning of soil removed from one horizon to another.

266

Immobilization

Conversion of an element from inorganic to organic form.

267

Immunity

The protection mechanism against infections caused by micro-organisms or toxins, that is inherent in the body.

268

Immunoblot

The technique for analyzing or identifying proteins via antigen:antibody specific reactions.

269

Immunofluoresence

The technique to determine the location of an antigen or antibody in a tissue section or smear by fluorescence.

270

Immunogen

A substance that has the capacity to bring about an immune response.

271

Immunoglobulin

A protein which has antibody activity.

272

In vivo

Inside the body.

273

Inducible Enzyme

An enzyme generated in response to an external factor.

274

Infection

Invasion and multiplication of micro-organisms in body tissues, leading to various diseases and disorders.

275

Infection Thread

The tube in root hair, through which rhizobia reach and infect roots.

276

Infrared (IR)

The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum whose wavelength ranges from 0.75 microns to 1 millimeter.

277

Inoculate

To treat a medium with micro-organisms for the purpose of creating a favorable response.

278

Inoculum

The material used to introduce an organism into a certain medium for growth.

279

Insertion

A type of genetic mutation, wherein single or multiple nucleotides are added to DNA.

280

Insertion Sequence

The simplest possible type of transposable elements.

281

Integration

The process by which a DNA molecule becomes incorporated into another genome.

282

Interspecies Hydrogen Transfer

The process of hydrogen production and consumption reactions, occurring by the interaction of various micro-organisms.

283

Intracellular

Inside the cell.

284

Isoenzyme

When two different enzymes, which maybe different in their composition, act as catalysts for the same reaction, or set of reactions.

285

Isolation

A procedure wherein a pure culture of an organism is obtained from a sample or an environment.

286

Isomorphous Substitution

The substitution of an atom by a similarly sized atom of lower valence, in a crystalline clay sheet.

287

Jaccard's Coefficient

An association coefficient of numerical taxonomy, which is the proportion of characters that match, excluding those that both organisms lack.

288

K- Strategy

Ecological strategy where organisms depend on adapting physiologically to the resources available in their immediate environment.

289

Koch's Postulates

Laws given by Robert Koch which prove that an organism is the causative agent of a disease.

290

Lag Phase

The time period when there is no increase in the number of micro-organisms, seen after inoculation of fresh growth medium.

291

Lamella

Seen in plants as the layers of protoplasmic membranes in chloroplast that contain photosynthetic pigments.

292

Leaching

Removal of metals from ores by the help of micro-organisms.

293

Lectins

Plant proteins with a high affinity for specific sugar residues.

294

Leghemoglobin

Red colored pigments rich in iron, which are produced in root nodules during symbiotic association between rhizobia and leguminous plants.

295

Ligand

A molecule, ion or group of molecules or ions, bound to the central atom by means of a chelate or coordination compound.

296

Light Compensation Point

The point where the rate of respiration is higher than the rate of photosynthesis, which usually occurs at about 1% of sunlight intensity.

297

Lime (agricultural)

Soil amendment containing high levels of calcium compounds, like calcium carbonate and other such mineral which are used to neutralize soil acidity, and provide calcium for plant growth.

298

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

Complex lipid structure containing sugars and fatty acids, which is commonly found in most Gram negative bacteria.

299

Lithotroph

An organism that uses inorganic substrate such as ammonia or hydrogen to act as electron donors in energy metabolism. They maybe chemolithotrophs or photolithotrophs.

300

Litter

The surface layer of forests which is laden with leaves, twigs, fruits etc.

301

Lophotrichous

An organism that has a tuft of flagella that is polar in nature.

302

Luxury Uptake

Uptake of nutrients in excess of what is required by an organism for its normal growth.

303

Lysis

The rupture and destruction of a cell, resulting in loss of cellular contents.

304

Lysogeny

An association where a prokaryote contains a prophage and the virus genome is replicated in sync with the chromosome of the host.

305

Lysosome

A cell organelle which contains lytic enzymes.

306

Macronutrient

A substance required in large amounts for normal growth of an individual.

307

Macropore

Larger soil pores from which water drains readily by gravity.

308

Magnetosome

Small particles of magnetite, which is a compound containing magnesium, present in cells that exhibit magnetotaxis.

309

Magnetotactic Bacteria

Bacteria that orient themselves according to the earth's magnetic field due to the presence of the magnetosomes.

310

Manure

Animal excreta, with or without a bedding of litter at various stages of decomposition. It's normally considered to be a good fertilizer.

311

Mass Flow (nutrient)

The movement of solutes in relation to the movement of water.

312

Medium

A source where micro-organisms are grown.

313

Mesofauna

Animals residing in the soil which are 200 to 1000 microns in length. This group includes nematodes, oligochaete worms, smaller insect larvae and certain anthropods.

314

Mesophile

An organism that thrives in temperatures ranging from 15 - 40 degrees Celsius.

315

Methanogenesis

The production of methane by biological reactions.

316

Methanogenic Bacterium

Bacteria that produce methane as a by:product of their chemical reactions.

317

Methanotroph

An organism capable of oxidizing methane.

318

Microaerophile

Micro-organisms that grow well in relatively low oxygen concentration environments.

319

Microaggregate

Clusters of clay stabilized by organic matter and precipitated inorganic matter.

320

Microbial Biomass

Total mass of micro-organisms living in a given mass or volume of soil.

321

Microbial Population

Total number of micro-organisms living in a given mass or volume of soil.

322

Microbiology

The study of micro-organisms, often with the aid of a microscope.

323

Microcosm

A community or any other unit that is representative of a larger community.

324

Microenvironment

The immediate physical and chemical surroundings of a microorganism.

325

Microfauna

Protozoa, nematodes and anthropods that are smaller than 200 microns.

326

Microflora

This includes bacteria, virus, fungi and algae.

327

Micrometer

One millionth of a meter (10-6 meters).

328

Micronutrient

Elements that are required for growth in trace amounts. These include copper, iron, zinc etc.

329

Micro-organism

An organism that is too small to be seen by the naked eye. Also called microbes, these include bacteria, fungi, protozoans, algae and viruses.

330

Micropore

A small sized soil pore (approximately less than 30 microns in diameter) which is normally found within structural aggregates.

331

Microsite

A small part of the soil where the biological or chemical processes are different from the rest of the soil.

332

Mixotroph

Organisms that are capable of assimilating organic compounds as carbon sources, while using inorganic compounds as electron donors.

333

Mold

A group of saprobic or parasitic fungi causing a cottony growth on organic substances.

334

Monoclonal Antibody

Antibody produced from a single clone of cells, which has a uniform structure and specificity.

335

Monokaryon

Fungal hyphae where the compartments contain only nucleus.

336

Morphometric Characters

These are characteristics regarding the depth, dimension, sediment distribution, water currents etc.

337

Motility

The ability of a cell to move from one place to another.

338

Mucigel

Gelatinous material found on the surface of roots growing in normal soil.

339

Mucilage

Gelatinous secretions and exudates produced by plant roots and most micro-organisms.

340

Mulch

Materials which are laid down on soil to protect it from rain, crusting, freezing etc. these materials could be sawdust, plastic, leaves etc.

341

Municipal Solid Waste

The total consumer and commercial waste generated in a certain confined and restricted geographic area.

342

Mycophagous

Organisms that eat fungi.

343

Mycovirus

Viruses that infect fungi.

344

Nanopore

Soil pore having dimensions in nanometers.

345

NAPL

A non-aqueous phase liquid which maybe lighter or denser than water.

346

Necrotrophic

A mechanism by which an organism produces lytic enzymes that kill and then breakdown host cells for its nutrition.

347

Nematode

Eukaryotes that are unsegmented, usually microscopic roundworm.

348

Neutralism

Lack of interaction between two organisms in the same habitat.

349

Niche

Functional role of an organism in a certain habitat.

350

Nictotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+)

An important oxidized coenzyme that is a hydrogen and electron carrier in redox reactions.

351

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADP+)

An important oxidized coenzyme that acts as a hydrogen and electron carrier in various redox reactions.

352

Nitrate Reduction (biological)

The process of reduction of nitrate to simpler forms like ammonium by plant and micro-organisms.

353

Nitrification

Biological oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.

354

Nitrifying Bacteria

Chemolithotrophs that can carry out the transformation from ammonia to nitrite or nitrate.

355

Nitrogen Cycle

The cycle where nitrogen is used by a living organism, then after the organism dies is restored to soil, followed by its final conversion to its original state of oxidation.

356

Nitrogenase

The enzyme required for biological nitrogen fixation.

357

Nodulin

Proteins produced in root hairs or nodules in response to rhizobial infection.

358

Nonpolar

A substance that is hydrophobic and does not easily dissolve in water.

359

Northern Blot

Hybridization of single stranded DNA or RNA to RNA fragments.

360

Nucleic Acid

A high molecular weight nucleotide polymer.

361

Nucleoid

The nuclear region of certain organisms like bacteria, which contains chromosomes, but which is not limited by a nuclear membrane.

362

Nucleophilic Compound

An electron donor in chemical reactions involving covalent catalysis in which the donated electrons bond with other chemical groups.

363

Oligonucleotide

A short nucleic acid chain, which is obtained from an organism or is synthesized chemically.

364

Oligotroph

A microorganism that has adapted itself to grow in environments that are low in nutrients.

365

Oospore

Thick walled spore formed in an oogonium by fungus like organisms like the phylum Oomycota.

366

Operon

Genes whose expression is controlled by a single operator.

367

Parasitism

Feeding by one organism on the cells of a second, normally larger organism, thus, harming the host.

368

Parasexual Cycle

A nuclear cycle wherein genes of haploid nuclei recombine without meiosis.

369

Particle Density

Density of particles present in soil.

370

Particle Size

Effective diameter of a particle measured by sedimentation or micrometric mathods.

371

Pasteurization

Process of using heat to kill or reduce the activity of micro-organisms in heat:sensitive materials.

372

Pathogen

An organism that is capable of causing an infection, or harming a host cell.

373

Pathogen Suppressive soil

Soil where a pathogen does not persist, either in its own survival or in its pathogenicity.

374

Pathogenicity

The ability of a parasite to infect or inflict damage on a host.

375

Peat

Unconsolidated soil material consisting mostly of undecomposed organic matter with excessive moisture content.

376

Pellicle

A rigid protein layer just below the cell membrane.

377

Peptidoglycan

Rigid cell wall layer seen in bacteria. It's also called murein.

378

Peribacteroid Membrane

A plant derived membrane which surrounds rhizobia in host cells of legume nodules.

379

Periplasmic space

The area between the cell membrane and cell wall in Gram negative bacteria.

380

Perithecium

Flask shaped ascocarp open at the tip.

381

Peritrichous Flagellation

Multiple flagella present all over the cell surface.

382

Permanent Wilting Point

The highest concentration of soil at which plants present in it, will irreversibly wilt when placed in a humid chamber.

383

Phosphobacterium

Bacteria that are good at dissolving insoluble inorganic phosphate that is present in soil.

384

Photoautotroph

Self:sufficient organisms that can generate energy from light and carbon dioxide.

385

Photoheterotroph

Organisms able to use light as source of energy and organic materials as carbon source.

386

Photophosphorylation

Synthesis of high energy phosphate bonds by the use of light as source of energy.

387

Phototaxis

Movement of an organism, or a part of it, towards light.

388

Phytoextraction

The use of plants or algae for removing contaminants from soil, sediments or water, and turning them into harvestable plant biomass.

389

Phycobilin

Water soluble pigment that is seen in cyanobacteria and is the light harvesting pigment for Photosystem II.

390

Pilus

Fimbria like substance present on fertile cells that deals with transfer of DNA during the process of conjugation.

391

Plaque

A localized area of lysis or cell inhibition which is caused due to virus infection.

392

Plasmogamy

Fusion of two cell contents, inclusive of the cytoplasm and nuclei.

393

Plate Count

Number of colonies formed on a solid culture medium, when uniformly inoculated with a known amount of soil.

394

Polar Flagellation

The presence of flagella at one or both ends.

395

Protoplast

A cell devoid of cell wall.

396

Pour Plate

The method of performing a plate count of micro-organisms.

397

Psychrotroph

An organism that is able to grow at zero degrees and above twenty degrees Celsius.

398

Pure Culture

A microorganism population of a single strain.

399

Radioimmunoassay

An immunological assay that makes use of radioactive antibodies or antigens to detect certain substances.

400

Reaction Center

A photosynthetic complex containing chlorophyll and other compounds.

401

Reannealing

The process seen on cooling, where two complementary strands of DNA hybridize back into a single strand.

402

Recalcitrant

Resistance of an organism to a microbial attack.

403

Recombination

Process by which genetic elements in two separate genomes are brought together in one unit. This is an important step in gene therapy.

404

Replication

Conversion of one double stranded DNA molecule into two identical double stranded DNA molecules.

405

Repression

Process by which an enzyme synthesis is suppressed due to the presence of certain external substance.

406

Reverse Transcription

Process of copying information from RNA to DNA.

407

Rhizobacteria

Bacteria that are found in roots, where they aggressively colonize.

408

Rhizobia

Bacteria capable of living symbiotically in leguminous plant roots, from where they receive energy and commonly fix molecular dinitrogen.

409

Rhizomorph

Mass of fungal hyphae that are organized in long, thick strands with a darkly pigmented outer rind that contains specialized tissues for absorption and water transport.

410

Rhizoplane

Plant root surface and strongly adhering soil particles.

411

Rhizosphere

The zone of soil immediately adjacent to plant roots in which the activity and type of micro-organisms present differ from that in the rest of the soil.

412

Rhizosphere Competence

Ability of an organism to colonize the rhizosphere.

413

Sanitization

Elimination of pathogenic or harmful organisms, including insect larvae, intestinal parasites and weed seeds.

414

Sclerotium

Modified fungal hyphae that form a compact and hard vegetative resting structure with a thick pigmented outer rind.

415

Secondary Metabolite

Product of intermediary metabolism released from a cell, for example, antibiotic.

416

Selective Medium

A medium that is biased in allowing only certain types of micro-organisms to grow.

417

Serial Dilution

Series of stepwise dilutions, normally done in sterile water, which is done to reduce microorganism populations to manageable numbers.

418

Serology

Study of reactions that take place between antigens and antibodies in vitro.

419

Sheath

Tubular structure that is found either around a chain of cells or around a bundle of filaments.

420

Siderochromes

The compounds that are synthesized by the micro-organisms themselves, which are responsible for iron uptake.

421

Siderophore

A metabolite that is formed by some micro-organisms, that forms a strong coordination compound with iron.

422

Slime Layer

A diffuse layer found immediately outside the cell wall in certain bacteria.

423

Slime Mold

Micro-organisms that are eukaryotic and which lack cell walls.

424

Solarization

A technique to control the growth of pathogens, wherein a plastic sheet is used to cover moistened soil in hot climates, thereby trapping the incoming radiation.

425

Specific Activity

Expressed as micromoles formed per unit time per milligram of protein, this is the amount of enzyme activity units per mass of protein.

426

Spermosphere

The area seen around a germinating seed, where there is increased microbiological activity.

427

Spread Plate

A technique for performing a plate count of micro-organisms.

428

Sterilization

The process whereby an object or surface is rendered free of any living micro-organisms.

429

Storage Polysaccharide

The energy reserves which are stored in a cell when there is excess of carbon available.

430

Strain

Population of cells, all of which arise from a single pure isolate.

431

Substrate

A base on which an organism is grown. They can also be the substances on which compounds and enzymes act.

432

Sulfur Cycle

The cycle wherein sulfur, the element is taken up by living organisms, then released upon the death of the organism, and then converted to its final state of oxidation.

433

Symbiosis

Two dissimilar organisms, living together. Their association maybe commensal or mutualistic.

434

Synergism

Association between two organisms that is mutually beneficial.

435

Syntrophy

Interaction between two or more populations that supply each other's nutritional needs.

436

Systemic

Something that involves the entire body and is not localized in the body.

437

Teichoic Acids

All wall, membrane or capsular polymers containing glycerophosphate or ribitol phosphate residues.

438

Telemorph

One of the stages of sexual reproduction, wherein cells are formed by meiosis and genetic recombination.

439

Temperate Virus

A virus that does not cause destruction and lysis of the cells of its host, but instead, its genome may replicate in sync with that of the host.

440

Terminal Electron Acceptor

The last acceptor of the electron, as it exits the electron transport chain.

441

Thermocline

That point in a lake, where there is a drastic drop in temperature with increase in depth.

442

Thermophile

An organism that grows best at temperatures around 45 and 80 degrees Celsius.

443

Ti plasmid

A conjugative tumor inducing plasmid that can transfer genes into plants. Seen in the bacterium Agrobacterium tunefaciens.

444

Toxin

A foreign substance present in the body, which is mostly generated by micro-organisms, that is capable of inflicting damage on the host cell.

445

Transduction

The process where host genetic information is transferred through an agent like a virus or a bacteriophage.

446

Transgenic

Genetically modified plants or organisms, which contain foreign genes, which have been inserted by means of recombinant DNA techniques.

447

Transposable Element

A genetic element that can be transposed from one site on a chromosome to another.

448

Transposon

Transposable element which, in addition to transposable genes, carries other genes.

449

Transposon Mutagenesis

A mutant phenotype is formed by inactivation of the host gene, which occurs due to the insertion of a transposon.

450

Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle

A series of metabolic reactions, by which pyruvate is oxidized to carbon dioxide.

451

Trophic Level

Describes the residence of nutrients in various organisms along a food chain ranging from the primary nutrient assimilating autotrophs to carnivorous animals.

452

Uronic Acid

A class of acidic compounds that contain both carboxylic and aldehydic groups and are oxidation products of sugars. They occur mainly in polysaccharides.

453

Vadose Zone

Unsaturated zone of soil which is above the groundwater, extending from the bottom of the capillary fringe to the soil surface.

454

Vector

An agent that can carry pathogens from one host to another. It can also denote a plasmid or virus used in genetic engineering to insert genes into a cell.

455

Vegetative Cell

A growing or actively feeding form of a cell, as against a spore.

456

Vesicles

Spherical structures formed intra:cellularly, by certain arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

457

Viable but Nonculturable

Living organisms that cannot be cultured on artificial media.

458

Viable Count

Measurement of the concentration of live cells in a microbial population.

459

Vibrio

Curved, rod-shaped bacteria that cause cholera, belonging to the genus Vibrio.

460

Virion

The virus particle and the virus nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat.

461

Virulence

The degree of pathogenicity of a parasite.

462

Water Content

The amount of water contained in a material, which is expressed as the mass of water per unit mass of oven:dry material.

463

Water Retention Curve

A graph showing soil water content as a function of increasingly negative soil water potential.

464

White Rot Fungus

Fungus that attacks lignin, along with cellulose and hemicellulose, leading to marked lightening of the infected wood.

465

Wild Type

Strain of a microorganism that is isolated from nature. The native and original form of a gene or organism.

466

Winogradsky Column

A glass column that allows growth of micro-organisms under conditions similar to those found in nutrient rich water and sediment. This column contains an anerobic lower zone and an aerobic upper zone.

467

Woronin Body

A spherical structure found in fungi belonging to the phylum Ascomycota, which are associated with the simple pore in the septa separating the hyphal compartments.

468

Xenobiotic

A compound that is foreign to the biological systems.

469

Xerophile

An organism that is capable of growing at low water potentials, that is, in very dry habitats.

470

Zymogenous Flora

Refers to micro-organisms that respond rapidly by enzyme production and growth when simple organic substrates become available.