RadReview Ethical & Legal Aspect

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1

Which of the following conditions must be met in order for patient consent to be valid?

The patient must sign the consent form before receiving sedation.

The physician named on the consent form must perform the procedure.

All the blanks on the consent form must be filled in before the patient signs the form.

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

2

A radiologic technologist can be found guilty of a tort in which of the following situations?

Failure to shield a patient of childbearing age from unnecessary radiation

Performing an examination on a patient who has refused the examination

Discussing a patient's condition with a third party

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

3

Radiographs are the property of the
A.
radiologist.
B.
patient.
C.
health-care institution.
D.
referring physician.

C.
health-care institution.

4

A radiographer who tells the patient that he or she will have to repeat this uncomfortable examination if the patient does not try harder to cooperate can be accused of
A.
assault.
B.
battery.
C.
false imprisonment.
D.
defamation.

A.
assault.

5

The moral principle that describes the radiographer's aspiration to do no harm or to allow no act that might cause harm to the patient is termed
A.
beneficence.
B.
nonmaleficence.
C.
autonomy.
D.
veracity.

B.
nonmaleficence.

6

Which of the following legal phrases defines a circumstance in which both the health care provider's and the patient's actions contributed to an injurious outcome?
A.
Intentional misconduct
B.
Contributory negligence
C.
Gross negligence
D.
Corporate negligence

B.
Contributory negligence

7

Facsimile transmission of health information is

not permitted.

permitted for urgently needed patient care.

permitted for third-party payer hospitaliza-tion certification.

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

8

The ethical principle that refers to bringing about good, or benefiting others, is called
A.
fidelity.
B.
veracity.
C.
nonmalficence.
D.
beneficence.

D.
beneficence

9

Which of the following must be included in the patient's medical record or chart?
1. Diagnostic and therapeutic orders
2. Medical history
3. Informed consent

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only

D.
1, 2, and 3

10

A radiographer would be in violation of the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) Code of Ethics for the Profession of Radiologic Technology for all of the following except
A.
failing to wear a lead apron when performing mobile radiography.
B.
failing to participate in continuing education.
C.
communicating information regarding suspected child abuse to the referring physician.
D.
refusing to participate in new and innovative technical procedures.

C.
communicating information regarding suspected child abuse to the referring physician.

11

Verbal disclosure of confidential information that is detrimental to the patient is referred to as
A.
invasion of privacy
B.
slander
C.
libel
D.
assault

B.
slander

12

All the following are part of the Patient's Bill of Rights except 1
A.
the right to participate in proposed research studies.
B.
the right to continuity of care.
C.
the right to considerate and respectful care.
D.
the right to review any institutional records.

D.
the right to review any institutional records.

13

Forms of intentional misconduct include

slander.

invasion of privacy.

negligence.

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
1 and 2 only

14

To "excuse" suboptimal images, a radiographer makes a note on the exam requisition claiming that the patient "was uncooperative." That radiographer can legally be found guilty of
A.
malpractice.
B.
slander.
C.
libel.
D.
tort.

C.
libel.

15

Which of the following involve(s) intentional misconduct?

Invasion of privacy

False imprisonment

Patient sustaining injury from a fall while left unattended

A.
1 only
B.
3 only
C.
1 and 2 only
D.
2 and 3 only

C.
1 and 2 only

16

An RT (ARRT) is the supervising manager of a short-staffed imaging facility in a State having legislation that requires professional certification. An job applicant arrives whose ARRT certification has lapsed. The manager hires him to fill a 20-hour position doing chest and extremity radiography. The supervisor is guilty of
A.
breaking the ARRT Code of Ethics.
B.
breaking the ARRT Rules of Ethics.
C.
malpractice.
D.
nothing, because position responsibilities are limited.

B.
breaking the ARRT Rules of Ethics.

17

Unlawful touching of a person without his or her consent is termed
A.
assault
B.
battery
C.
false imprisonment
D.
invasion of privacy

battery

18

A radiographer who discloses confidential information to unauthorized individuals may be found guilty of
A.
invasion of privacy.
B.
slander.
C.
libel.
D.
defamation.

A.
invasion of privacy.

19

Honor Code violations that can prevent a radiography student from meeting ARRT certification requirements include

failing one or more courses in the radiography program

being suspended from the radiography program

being dismissed/expelled from a radiography program

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

20

Hospitals and other health care providers must ensure patient confidentiality in compliance with which of the following legislation?
A.
MQSA
B.
MRSA
C.
HIPAA
D.
HIPPA

C.
HIPAA

21

Patients' rights include which of the following?
1. The right to refuse treatment
2. The right to confidentiality
3. The right to possess his or her radiographs

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

22

The legal document or individual authorized to make an individual's health care decisions, should the individual be unable to make them for himself or herself, is the

advance health care directive.

living will.

health care proxy.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

23

If a radiographer continues a lumbar spine examination after the patient states that he or she does not want to finish the examination, that radiographer can be found guilty of
A.
assault.
B.
battery.
C.
false imprisonment.

C.
false imprisonment.

24

If a radiographer performed a lumbar spine examination on a patient who was supposed to have an elbow examination, which of the following charges may be brought against the radiographer?
A.
Assault
B.
Battery
C.
False imprisonment
D.
Defamation

B.
Battery

25

Mrs. Carley is having a lumbar spine series because of back pain. She had been to the department in the past, and many of the students and technologists are aware of her apprehension with students.

Terry Lomberdo knows this, but as a second-year student, she has performed many studies with minimal supervision and is confident of her skills. When she calls Mrs. Carley, she introduces herself but omits any mention of her student status. Terry gives Mrs. Carley changing instructions and leaves her momentarily to prepare the x-ray room. Within a few minutes, she returns and directs Mrs. Carley to the examination room. As she closes the door, Mrs. Carley comments: "Did they finally get rid of all those students? They are all incompetent! I would never let one take my x-ray."

What is the most ethically appropriate immediate action for Terry to take?
A.
Say nothing and proceed with the examination.
B.
Admit her student status with an explanation of her education and competency level.
C.
Admit her student status and tell Mrs. Carley that she will have a long wait if Terry is not allowed to perform the examination.
D.
Agree with Mrs. Carley, pretend that she is a technologist, and proceed with the examination.

B.
Admit her student status with an explanation of her education and competency level

26

The legal doctrine respondeat superior relates to which of the following?
A.
Let the master answer.
B.
The thing speaks for itself.
C.
A thing or matter settled by justice.
D.
A matter settled by precedent.

A.
Let the master answer.

27

The legal doctrine respondeat superior means which of the following?
A.
A matter settled by precedent.
B.
A thing or matter settled by justice.
C.
The thing speaks for itself.
D.
Let the master answer.

D.
Let the master answer.

28

A radiographer who discloses confidential patient information to unauthorized individuals can be found guilty of
A.
libel.
B.
invasion of privacy.
C.
slander.
D.
defamation.

B.
invasion of privacy.

29

A signed consent form is necessary prior to performing all the following procedures except
A.
myelogram.
B.
cardiac catheterization.
C.
upper GI series.
D.
interventional vascular procedure.

C.
upper GI series.

30

For which of the following can a radiographer be found liable for a negligent tort?

Radiographer images the wrong forearm.

Patient is injured while being positioned on the x-ray table.

Radiographer fails to question patient about possible pregnancy before performing x-ray examination.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

31

You receive a patient who is complaining of pain in the area of the left fourth and fifth metatarsals; however, the requisition asks for a left ankle examination. What should you do?
A.
Perform a left foot examination.
B.
Perform a left ankle examination.
C.
Perform both a left foot and a left ankle examination.
D.
Check with the referring physician.

D.
Check with the referring physician.

32

A radiographer has recently joined your staff. You are aware that this individual has had her ARRT certification revoked. Realizing that your state requires certification, you speak to a supervisor about the matter. Your supervisor replies that he knows but made an exception "because we are so short staffed." You should
A.
report this to the next supervisor in charge.
B.
report this to the facility administrator.
C.
report this directly to the ARRT.
D.
do and/or say nothing.

C.
report this directly to the ARRT.

33

Which of the following must be included in a patient's medical record or chart?

Diagnostic and therapeutic orders

Medical history

Informed consent

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

34

You are working in the outpatient department and receive a patient who is complaining of pain in the right hip joint; however, the requisition asks for a left femur examination. What should you do?
A.
Perform a right hip examination.
B.
Perform a left femur examination.
C.
Perform both a right hip and a left femur examination.
D.
Check with the referring physician.

D.
Check with the referring physician.

35

Which of the following patient rights is violated by discussing privileged patient information with an individual who is not involved with the patient's care?
1. The right to considerate and respectful care
2. The right to privacy
3. The right to continuity of care

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
2 and 3 only

B.
2 only

36

Joseph Luckett Jr, is a competent second-year student. He has been imaging patients under indirect supervision for most of the day. All CR images are viewed at the workstation on the computer monitor, before being sent to the radiologist.

After taking posteroanterior (PA) and lateral chest projections on a patient with a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) test, Joseph notices that he has "clipped" the apices on the PA projection. As per the policy of the department and program, he must consult with a technologist before repeating any images.

The technologist takes a quick glance at his image and says, "It looks fine. Send it."

"But what about the apices?" Joseph asks. He knows that imaging the apices is extremely important in suspected cases of TB.

The technologist does not take a second look. "That's okay. It's just a routine. Send it."

What is the most appropriate immediate action for Joseph to take?
A.
Ignore the technologist's advice and repeat the PA view.
B.
Send the images as suggested by the technologist.
C.
Send the images but, without informing the technologist, add the following comment: "Technologist advised against a repeat."
D.
Explain the clinical history to the technologist and stress that he is uncomfortable sending a suboptimal study.

D.
Explain the clinical history to the technologist and stress that he is uncomfortable sending a suboptimal study.

37

What is the appropriate action if a patient has signed consent for a procedure but, once on the radiographic table, refuses the procedure?
A.
Proceed—the consent form is signed.
B.
Send the patient back to his or her room.
C.
Honor the patient's request and proceed with the next patient.
D.
Immediately stop the procedure and inform the radiologist and the referring physician of the patient's request.

D.
Immediately stop the procedure and inform the radiologist and the referring physician of the patient's request.

38

The ARRT Rules of Ethics are

1. aspirational.

2. mandatory.

3. minimally acceptable standards.
A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

39

The ethical principle that aspires never to, above all, do harm describes
A.
fidelity.
B.
veracity.
C.
nonmalficence.
D.
beneficence.

C.
nonmalficence.

40

All the following are part of the patient's bill of rights except
A.
the right to refuse treatment.
B.
the right to review one's records.
C.
the right to order an x-ray procedure.
D.
the right to have an advance directive.

C.
the right to order an x-ray procedure.

41

As health care professionals aspire to design their actions to always benefit their patients, to only bring about good for their patients, they are aspiring to what moral principle?
A.
Beneficence
B.
Nonmaleficence
C.
Autonomy
D.
Veracity

A.
Beneficence

42

For medicolegal reasons, radiographic images are required to include all the following information except
A.
the patient's name and/or identification number.
B.
the patient's birth date.
C.
a right- or left-side marker.
D.
the date of the examination.

B.
the patient's birth date

43

Exposure factors of 100 kVp and 6 mAs are used with a 6:1 grid for a particular exposure. What should be the new milliampere-seconds value if a 12:1 grid is substituted?
A.
7.5 mAs
B.
10 mAs
C.
13 mAs
D.
18 mAs

B.
10 mAs

44

The term dysplasia refers to
A.
difficulty speaking.
B.
abnormal development of tissue.
C.
malposition.
D.
difficult or painful breathing.

B.
abnormal development of tissue.