Forensic test 1

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1

Forensic science is...

The application of science and technology to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justce system.

2

Who created the popular ficEonal detecEve Sherlock Holmes?

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

3

Why is Sherlock Holmes important to Forensics?

Sherlock Holmes, first applied these principles in Doyle’s novels: Serology,
Fingerprinting, Firearm Identification, Questioned-document examination

4

Mathieu Orfila

father of forensic toxicology.

5

Alphonse BerEllon

developed the system known as anthropometry or a system of body measurements for personal identification

6

Francis Galton

undertook the first definitive study of fingerprints as a method of personal identification.

7

Leone Lattes

Developed the concept that blood typing could be a useful identification tool in criminal investigation

8

Calvin Goddard

established the comparison microscope as the indispensable tool of the modern firearms examiner.

9

Albert S. Osborn

Development of the fundamental principles of document examination.

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Walter C. McCrone

Applied using microscopes to all fields of forensic investigations.

11

Hans Gross

Authored the first treatise describing the application of scientific disciplines to the field of criminal investigation.

12

Edmond Locard

established the first workable crime laboratory. Came up with Locards exchange principle.

13

Explain Locard’s Exchange Principle AND tell why it is important to Forensics.

The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come into contact with one another

14

Physical Science

Unit of the crime lab responsible for Soil and Mineral Analysis.

15

Biology

Unit of the crime lab responsible for hair and fiber comparison

16

Firearms

Unit of the crime lab responsible for firearm or gunpowder residue analysis

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Document Examination

Unit of the crime lab responsible for analysis of ink or paper

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Photography

Unit of the crime lab that is responsible for recording physical evidence through imaging techniques.

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Toxicology

unit has the responsibility for the examination of body fluids and organs for the presence of drugs and poisons

20

Latent Fingerprint

Processes and examines evidence for latent fingerprints

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Polygraph

Unit of the crime lab that administers lie detector tests ! to suspects or witnesses

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Voiceprint Analysis

Analyzes tape-recorded messages or telephoned threats

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Evidence Collection

Collects and preserves evidence at the crime scene

24

Frye v. United States

Said that scientific procedures will only be allowed
in a court of law if the procedures used are “generally accepted by the scientific community”

25

Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical

Court case in 1993
Asserted that “general acceptance” is not an absolute prerequisite for admissibility
The judge in the case can be a “gatekeeper” in deciding the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence that is presented in a courtroom
Guidelines to gauge the scientific evidence
Whether or not the method has been or can be tested
Whether or not the method has been published or reviewed by others in the field
The technique’s potential rate of error Standards of operational procedures Acceptance in the general scientific community

26

Explain the difference between an EXPERT witness and a LAY witness.

An expert witness can give facts AND opinions based upon their training and knowledge in a field. A lay witness can only tes*fy to those things known as facts—NO opinions can be given.

27

Explain how the MORTISES can help a coroner at autopsy.
Rigor Mortis:

Livor Mortis:

Algor Mortis:

Rigor mortis is the stiffening of the muscles after death. It occurs within 24 hours but goes away after 36. This can help determine *me of death.
Since the muscles become stiff, it can also tell the position of the body. Example—you can tell if someone was sitting or laying down.

Livor mortis is the pooling of blood after the heart stops pumping due to the force of gravity. Therefore, the blood will pool in the body in the parts closest to the ground.

Algor mortis is the cooling of the body at 1.5 degrees per hour until the temp of the environment is reached. This can tell time of death.

28

Forensic Anthropology—

Identification and examination of skeletal remains
May reveal personal attributes such as origin, sex, age, race, and/or injury
Facial reconstruction
May be able to identify mass victims of disaster through skeletal remains

29

Forensic Entomology—

The study of insects and their relation to a criminal investigation
As decomposition occurs, insects arrive on the carcass in a regular time interval
May help determine time of death
Results may be effected by geographical location, climate, and weather conditions

30

Forensic Psychiatry—

Area in which the relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings are examined
Civil cases: competency to make decisions Criminal cases: competency to stand trial
Profilers: track the behavior of criminals based on patterns and types of crimes

31

Forensic Odontology—

Provide information about the identification of victims when the body is left in an unrecognizable state
Dental records
Characteristics of teeth
Teeth alignment
Overall structure of the mouth
Bite mark analysis in assault cases

32

Forensic Engineering—

Concerned with failure analysis, accident reconstruction, and causes and origins of fires or explosions
Focus mainly on the logical sequence and main cause of an accident or crime
Also attempts to determine who or what is responsible for the cause of an accident or crime