Forensic science is...
The application of science and technology to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justce system.
Who created the popular ficEonal detecEve Sherlock Holmes?
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
Why is Sherlock Holmes important to Forensics?
Sherlock Holmes, first applied these principles in Doyle’s novels: Serology,
Fingerprinting, Firearm Identification, Questioned-document examination
father of forensic toxicology.
developed the system known as anthropometry or a system of body measurements for personal identification
undertook the first definitive study of fingerprints as a method of personal identification.
Developed the concept that blood typing could be a useful identification tool in criminal investigation
established the comparison microscope as the indispensable tool of the modern firearms examiner.
Albert S. Osborn
Development of the fundamental principles of document examination.
Walter C. McCrone
Applied using microscopes to all fields of forensic investigations.
Authored the first treatise describing the application of scientific disciplines to the field of criminal investigation.
established the first workable crime laboratory. Came up with Locards exchange principle.
Explain Locard’s Exchange Principle AND tell why it is important to Forensics.
The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come into contact with one another
Unit of the crime lab responsible for Soil and Mineral Analysis.
Unit of the crime lab responsible for hair and fiber comparison
Unit of the crime lab responsible for firearm or gunpowder residue analysis
Unit of the crime lab responsible for analysis of ink or paper
Unit of the crime lab that is responsible for recording physical evidence through imaging techniques.
unit has the responsibility for the examination of body fluids and organs for the presence of drugs and poisons
Processes and examines evidence for latent fingerprints
Unit of the crime lab that administers lie detector tests ! to suspects or witnesses
Analyzes tape-recorded messages or telephoned threats
Collects and preserves evidence at the crime scene
Frye v. United States
Said that scientific procedures will only be allowed
in a court of law if the procedures used are “generally accepted by the scientific community”
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical
Court case in 1993
Asserted that “general acceptance” is not an absolute prerequisite for admissibility
The judge in the case can be a “gatekeeper” in deciding the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence that is presented in a courtroom
￼￼￼￼￼Guidelines to gauge the scientific evidence
Whether or not the method has been or can be tested
Whether or not the method has been published or reviewed by others in the field
The technique’s potential rate of error Standards of operational procedures Acceptance in the general scientific community
Explain the difference between an EXPERT witness and a LAY witness.
An expert witness can give facts AND opinions based upon their training and knowledge in a field. A lay witness can only tes*fy to those things known as facts—NO opinions can be given.
Explain how the MORTISES can help a coroner at autopsy.
Rigor mortis is the stiffening of the muscles after death. It occurs within 24 hours but goes away after 36. This can help determine *me of death.
Since the muscles become stiff, it can also tell the position of the body. Example—you can tell if someone was sitting or laying down.
Livor mortis is the pooling of blood after the heart stops pumping due to the force of gravity. Therefore, the blood will pool in the body in the parts closest to the ground.
Algor mortis is the cooling of the body at 1.5 degrees per hour until the temp of the environment is reached. This can tell time of death.
Identification and examination of skeletal remains
May reveal personal attributes such as origin, sex, age, race, and/or injury
May be able to identify mass victims of disaster through skeletal remains
The study of insects and their relation to a criminal investigation
As decomposition occurs, insects arrive on the carcass in a regular time interval
May help determine time of death
Results may be effected by geographical location, climate, and weather conditions
Area in which the relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings are examined
Civil cases: competency to make decisions Criminal cases: competency to stand trial
Profilers: track the behavior of criminals based on patterns and types of crimes
Provide information about the identification of victims when the body is left in an unrecognizable state
Characteristics of teeth
Overall structure of the mouth
Bite mark analysis in assault cases
Concerned with failure analysis, accident reconstruction, and causes and origins of fires or explosions
Focus mainly on the logical sequence and main cause of an accident or crime
Also attempts to determine who or what is responsible for the cause of an accident or crime