TX Local State and Government Final Study Guide Part 2 Flashcards

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Chapters 7-10
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The notion that elections allow a democratic society to control its leaders and judge their actions assumes that:

a.voters are offered clear alternatives.
b.at least half the population has the right to vote.
c.canidates answer all questions posed to them by the news media.
d.there is 100 percent voter turnout.
e.voters are resentful of politics.



Elections in Texas are separated and scheduled at different times in order to:

a.increase voter turnout.
b.maximize accountability of elected officials to th public.
c.maximize the level of democracy in the state.
d.minimize the convergence of issues in state and local races.
e.keep voters interested in public issues.



Direct primaries in Texas:

a.are usually held on the second Tuesday in April in even-numbered years.
b.are optional for the Democratic and Republican Parties.
c.do not require formal party membership.
d.allow members from ne party to vote in the other party's runoff election.
e.usually have a higher voter turnout than general elections.



If no canidate in a primary election recieves a majority of voters, the:

a.election is run a second time.
b.top three vote getters face one another in a runoff election.
c.plurality winner wins the nomination.
d.party convention chooses a nominee.
e.top two vote getters face each other in a runoff election.



Party primaries:

a.draw more voters than general elections.
b.are paid for by the state.
c.draw more moderate and indepemdent voters than general elections.
d.are required fo every party appearing on the general election ballot.
e.give the party more control over the nomination process than party conventions.



General elections for state and federal offices:

a.usually are held on the second Tuesday in March in even-numbered years.
b.are held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even-numbered years.
c.do not allow split ticket voting.
d.do not allow straight ticket voting.
e.permit only one third party per ballot.



Most local elections:

a.usually held on the second Tueday in March in even-numbered years.
b.usually are held on the first Tuesday afer the first Monday in November in even-numbered years.
c.allow for split ticket voting.
d.are nonpartisan.
e.do not allow for early voting.



The poll tax in Texas:

a.was instituted to prevent African Americans from building coalitions with low-income whites.
b.was a tax of 1 percent of a person's income.
c.was levied on wealthy voters to help pay for the cost of running elections.
d.replaced the white primary.
e.was declared unconstitutional by the Texas Supreme Court.



All of the following are reforms that addressed restrictive registration in Texas EXCEPT:

a.permanent registration.
b.automatic registration renewal.
c.same-day registration.
d.registration deadline thirty days prior to an election.
e.encouragement of voter registration drives.



The tactic of dividing the minority communities and attaching them to predominantly nonminority communities in redistricting is known as:




All of the following are true about political ains of minorities and women in Texas EXCEPT that:

a.Hispanic voting turnout is less than the proportion of Hispanics in the state.
b.there are more Hispanic elected officials in Texas than in any other state.
c.African Americans comprise a larger percentage of the voting population in Texas than Hispanics.
d. more African Americans elected to statewide office in Texas have been Republicans than Democrats.
e.a majority of the Texas Cout of Criminal Appcals is made up of women.



One of the dangers of sophisticated targeting of voters by campaign consultants is that:

a.voters are less likely to turn out to vote.
b.partisans are more likely to switch party allegiances.
c.polled citizens are more likely to lie to consultants.
d.voters will acquire too much information about the candidates.
e.political debate will become fractured by the segmentation of the electorate.



Which of the following is an example of controlled media?

a.news coverage by the press
b.debate coverage
c.press conferences
e.appearance on a radio talk show



Which of the following is an example of uncontrolled media?

a.newspaper articles
b.block walking
c.direct mail
d.thirty-second spots
e.yard signs



Which of the following statements is TRUE about campaign finance laws in Texas?

a.Texas places the same limits on campaign contributions that the federal government does.
b.Texas places campaign contribution limits in judicial races.
c.There are no limits on the amount of money an individual can contribute to any race in Texas.
d.Canidates must disclose the amounts of contributions,but not the names of the donors.
e.PACs,but not individuals, are limited in whay they can contribute to campaigns.



The Texas legislature:

a.convenes in annual sessions that match congressional sessions.
b.meets every other year in even-numbered years.
c.is limited to one special session per year.
d.meets biannually in 140-day sessions.
e.has not held a special session since 1948.



Members of the Texas House:

a.must serve two-year staggered terms.
b.must be at least 21 years old.
c.can serve no more than four terms in a row.
d.have a base pay of $20,000 per year.
e.serve four-year staggered terms.



Members of the Texas Senate:

a.must serve six-year staggered terms.
b.must be at least 30 years old.
c.can serve no more than four terms in a row.
d.must be a Texas resident from birth.
e.have a base pay of $7,200 per year.



Members of the Texas legislature:

a.tend to be independently wealthy because the low annual salary prevents salaried workers from running for office.
b.have become more Democratic since the social upheavals of the 1960s.
c.experience frequent turnover due to strict term limits.
d.earn an annual salary second only to California's legislature.
e.enjoy no retirement benefits.



All of the following can be said about redistricting in Texas EXCEPT that:

a.district sizes varied dramatically before the 1960s court cases.
b.in the 1960s, the U.S. Supreme Court ordered all districts to be apportioned on the "one person,one vote" principle.
c.urban areas always have been represented by single-member districts.
d.court decisions have led to a dramatic increase in the number of women and minorities in the legislature.



Redistricting for state legislative seats in Texas:

a.is managed by an independent nonpartisan commission.
b.is managed by the Legislative Redistricting Board if the legislature fails to carry out its responsibilities.
c.is done every five years,coinciding with the federal census.
d.has rarely been affected by partisans gerrymandering.
e.never involves elected officials, who would benefit from control of the process.



The speaker of the Texas House of Representatives:

a.is elected statewide.
b.can vote only to break a tie.
c.has no power over the chamber's committee membership.
d.always staffs the committee leadership with members o his or her own party.
e.is elected by the House from among its members.



The lieutenant governor:

a.is appointed to office by the governor.
b.is always elected by the Senate from among its members.
c.is seen by many as the most powerful position in state government.
d.has less control over the Senate's agenda than the speaker has over the House's.
e.is banned by the Texas Constitution from voting.



In the committee system:

a.committee chairs are typically allied with the House and Senate leadership.
b.committees are staffed on a partisan basis, similar to the U.S. Congress.
c.committee chairs have little power to control legislation.
d.committee chairs must follow the will of the majority on the committee.
e.committees usually operate independently of the House and Senate leadership.



All of the following are true of the legislative process EXCEPT that:

a.a bill survive three readings before being sent to the other chamber.
b.a veto can be overridden by a two-thirds vote of both houses.
c.the governor can veto specific lines of spending bills.
d.the governor can use the line-item veto on any bill.
e.all tax bills must originate in the House.



One of the procedural obstacle to legislation is the:

a.two-thirds rule,which allows any eleven House embers to kill a controversial bill.
b.tag,which allows senators to postpone committee hearings for at least 48 hours.
c.filibuster,which allows House members to bypass the committee structure.
d.line-item veto, which allow the lieutenant governor to delete specific lines from bills.
e.two-thirds rule, which requires both chambers to pass bills by a two-thirds vote.



Which of the following best describes the place of partisanship in the Texas legislature?

a.The legislature still is not organized along party lines.
b.The rules of the legislature automatically give leadership positions to members of the majority party.
c.As Republicans grew in force, Democratic leaders blocked them from serving as committee chairs.
d.Republicans took majorities in both chambers with Governor George W. Bush's 1998 reelection.
e.Current Republican leaders have blocked Democrats from serving as committee chairs.



Which of the following best describes the legislative process in Texas?

a.Texans pay closer attention to legislation than residents of most other states.
b.News media outlets hold legislators accountable for every vote the take.
c.Interest groups play a relatively unimportant role in the legislative process.
d.Lawmakers often take their cues from other lawmakers.
e.The governor generally stays out of the legislative process.



One of the governor's important influences in the lawmaking process is the power to:

a.filibuster a bill.
b.grandstand in front of the media.
c.ban interest groups from testifying in committee hearing.
d.help legislators identify bills that will reward them financially.
e.threaten a veto.



One of the accomplishments of modern reform efforts was to:

a.place limits on financial contributions to political campaigns.
b.prohibit legislators from representing clients before state agencies for pay.
c.prohibit lawmakers from accepting payment for speaking to special interest groups.
d.require full disclosure of major campaign contributions in statewide races.
e.prevent candidates from spending their own money in campaigns.



The transformation of the Texas executive from a strong unified institution to a divided and plural institution began with the:

a.1836 Constitution of the Republic.
b.1845 state constitution.
c.1861 Confederate state constitution.
d.post-Civil War Constitution of 1866.
e.Reconstruction Constitution of 1869.



Which of the following executive branch officials does the governor have the power to appoint?

a.Secretary of state
b.Lieutenant governor
c.Comptroller of public accounts
d.Attorney general
e.Commissioner of the General Land Office



Some argue that one of the advantages of a plural executive in Texas is that it:

a.allows the governor to pursue innovative policy making.
b.decreases conflict between the executive and legislative branches.
c.constrains the governor.
d.facilitates the coordination of public policy.
e.reduces the disruptive influence of personal ambition among officeholders.



In order to qualify to run for governor, a person must be:
a.at least 35 years old.
b.a resident of Texas for at least five years.
c.a natural-born citizen.
d.an adherent of the Christian religion.
e.someone who has had previous experience in public service.



A governor can be removed from office:

a.by a vote of no confidence in the legislature.
b.b a vote of censure in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
c.by a recall election.
d.through impeachment proceedings initiated in the House of Representatives.
e.through an impeachment trial conducted by other members of the plural executive.



The governor's power to call special legislative sessions:

a.is limited to two special sessions per year.
b.increases the power of the legislature because it can determine the agenda of the special session.
c.increases the power of the governor because he or she can add items to the special session agenda.
d.is limited to one 30-day session per year.
e.is used only when the governor is too weak to get his or her agenda passed during the regular legislative session.



The governor's veto power is strong because:

a.he or she has thirty days to veto any bill.
b.a veto can be overridden only by three-fourths vote of both the House and the Senate.
c.a veto can be overridden by a simple majority of the House.
d.he or she has line-item veto authority over all bills passed by the legislature.
e.most vetoes are issued after the legislature has adjourned,making an override vote impossible.



All of the following are offices a governor can appoint EXCEPT:

a.vacant U.S. Senate seats.
b.the lieutenant governor.
c.secretary of state.
d.vacant Railroad Commission seats.
e.vacant Texas Supreme Court seats.



Which of the following describes why the governor's appointment powers are limited?

a.It takes years for a governor to get majorities favoring his or her policies because of staggered terms.
b.Vacancies can be filled only by popular election.
c.Senatorial courtesy requires the Senate to defer to the governor's preferences.
d.Campaign finance laws in Texas bar any campaign contributor from holding appointive office.
e.A governor can fire his or her own appointees only with the approval of two-thirds of both houses of the legislature.



The Texas governor has unilateral power to:
a.fire a predecessor's appointees upon accession to office.
b.grant a full pardon to a criminal.
c.commute a death sentence to life imprisonment.
d.grant a thirty-day stay of execution for a condemned murderer.
e.declare war on a bordering country in a time of national emergency.



Which of the following best describes the various informal resources the governor has at his or her disposal?

a.The governors staff remains too small to handle the increased demands on the governor's time.
b.The mass media remain an undeveloped source of influence for the governor.
c.Political parties were more important resource for the governor when Democrats dominated the state.
d.Political parties have become a more important resource as Republicans have gained power in the legislature.
e.Campaign finance laws have prevented business groups from having a significant influence in state policymaking.



Which of the following is TRUE about the leadership of recent Texas governors?

a.Bill Clements contributed to the development of a two-part system in Texas.
b.Ann Richards used her influence with the conservative legislature to enact a law allowing private citizens to legally carry handguns.
c.George W. Bush succeeded in enacting his policy agenda because Republicans had captured control of both houses of the legislature.
d.Rick Perry successfully enacted Texas's first state income tax.
e.Rick Perry became the first person to win three successive gubernatorial elections with more than 50 percent of the vote.



Which of the following can be said about the leadership of recent Texas governors?

a.Bill Clements's exhaustive experience in statewide office enabled him to forge a healthy working relationship with the Democratic legislature.
b.Ann Richards mad a priority of appointing more women and minorities to key positions in state government.
c.George W. Bush's background as a businessman helped him overcome business opposition to state tax increases.
d.George W. Bush successfully lobbied state lawmakers for the creation of a state lottery.
e.Rick Perry used his influence with the business community to enact a plan for a massive transportation network called the "Tans Texas Corridor."



The lieutenant governor:

a.is required to be from the same party as the governor.
b.is the running mate of the governor.
c.presides over the Texas Senate.
d.presides over the Texas House of Representatives.
e.chairs the Texas Railroad Commission.



Which of the following can be said about the various offices of the executive branch in Texas?

a.The attorney general serves as the state's chief criminal law enforcement officer.
b.The comptroller can authorize deficit spending for the state's operating budget.
c.The position of the land commissioner was eliminated by constitutional amendment in 1991.
d.The Railroad Commission had fifteen members elected from districts established by the legislature.
e.The Railroad Commission deals mainly with oil and gas regulation.



All of the following are reasons why the state bureaucracy faces problems EXCEPT that:

a.the fragmented executive branch means no single elected official is responsible for the quality of public services.
b.the part-time legislature makes systematic review and oversight impossible.
c.the workforce of state agencies is young and inexperienced.
d.part-time boards and commissions have considerable independence in interpreting policies.
e.many boards are dependent on the guidance of veteran administrators and career bureaucrats.



One of the basic characteristics of a bureaucracy is its:

a.small size.
b.flat organizational structure.
c.broadly defined tasks for employees.
d.flexible rules and standards.
e.impersonal relationships.



Which of the following statements about government employment in Texas is TRUE?
a.There are more local government workers than state government workers.
b.Texas has more government employees per 10,000 people than any other state.
c.The majority of local government employees work for the cities and counties.
d.The majority of city and county employees work in the areas of education and social services.
e.Privatization of health and human services by the state has been successful in reducing a large number of public jobs.



Policy implementation:

a.never involves the judicial branch.
b.requires rule making that involves government officials and interest groups.
c.is dictated by the governor to lower-level officials in state agencies.
d.is a nonpolitical,neutral process.
e.is marred by systematic corruption of public officials.



One of the obstacles to the bureaucracy's policy implementation is:

a.the absence of the expertise brought by interest groups.
b.high rates of turnover of the most competent employees.
c.high failure rates on promotion exams.
d.lack of adequate funding by the legislature.
e.the absence of iron triangles.



Co-optation refers to the:

a.influence on policy implementation by corrupt legislators.
b.ability of state agencies to interpret the law how they see fit.
c.influence on agency management by the governor.
d.influence on state agencies by the industries they are supposed to regulate.
e.authority of the Sunset Commission to recommend the abolishment of a state agency.



The Legislative Budget Board is made up of the:

a.governor,lieutenant governor, and speaker of the House.
b.lieutenant governor,comptroller, and speaker of the House.
c.lieutenant governor,speaker of the House, and eight legislators.
d.comptroller and chairs of the House and Senate Budget Committees.
e.governor,lieutenant governor, and chief justice of the Texas Supreme Court.



Which process examines state agencies to determine ways to eliminate mismanagement and inefficiency?

a.legislative budget control
b.performance review
c.outcomes review
d.revolving door restrictions
e.legislature's removal of ineffective administrators



Which process requires most state agencies to be periodically examined and re-created by the legislature or eliminated?

a.legislative budget control
b.performance review
c.revolving door
d.bureaucratic co-optation
e.sunset review



Which of the following is one accomplishment of sunset review?

a.modernization of state laws and procedures
b.reduction in the size of bureaucracy
c.a one-quarter reduction in the number of state agencies
limitation of the influence of lobbyist
e.speeding up of the revolving-door phenomenon



The practice of leaving a government job for a more lucrative job with the industry one used to regulate is known as:

c.revolving door.



A public employee who reports mistakes and intentional wrongdoing is known as a:

c.performance reviewer.
e.bureaucrat revolving door.



All of the following are examples of state regulation EXCEPT:

a.oversight of automobile insurance rates.
b.licensing of barbers.
c.pumping rate of oil.
d.economic incentives to businesses.
e.interstate commerce.



The hiring of public employees based on personal relationships and friendships is known as:

a.political patronage.
b.revolving door.
c.merit system.
d.civil service system.
e.state classification.



Why is the personnel system in Texas fragmented and decentralized?

a.A merit-based system is inconsistent with the state's moralistic views of politics.
b.Turnover rates are high.
c.The Texas Workforce Commission was sunsetted.
d.The plural executive system gives power to hire and fire to executive officeholders.
e.Political patronage has been successful in hiring competent and skilled experts.