anatomy and physiology Flashcards


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midterm chapters 12-16
updated 9 years ago by christinarowe
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1

dura mater

outer layer of the meninges

2

arachnoid mater

web like layer, lacks blood vessels and nerves. lies between the dura mater and innermost layer of the pia mater

3

pia mater

adheres tightly to the outer surface of the brain and spinal cord and provides the brain and spinal cord with many blood vessels and nerves

4

falx cerebelli is a

sickle shaped extension that separates the two halves or hemispheres of the cerebellum

5

tentorium cerebelli

separates the cerebellum from the cerebrum

6

epidural space

contains a supporting cushion of fat and other connective tissue and also contains nerves and blood vessels

7

subdural space

contains a small amount of lubricating fluid and lies between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater

8

subarachnoid space

space contains a large amount of cerebrospinal fluid

9

cerebrospinal fluid does what

cushions
reservoir of circulating fluid
homeostatic functions

10

choroid plexus

CSF separates here

11

each choroid plexus is covered with a sheet of specialized type of

ependymal (glial) cell

12

ependymal (glial) cell does what

releases the cerebral spinal fluid into the fluid spaces

13

nerve roots project from each side of the

spinal cord

14

dorsal (posterior nerve root) does what

carry information into the spinal cord

15

ventral (anterior) nerve root

carry motor information out of the spinal cord

16

the spinal cord provides

conduction routes to and from the brain, integrator or reflex center for all spinal reflexes

17

ascending tracts conduct

sensory impulses up the cord of the brain

18

descending tracts conduct

motor impulses down the cord fem the brain

19

medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain are collectively called the

brainstem

20

medulla oblongata

composed of white matter and a network of gray and white matter

21

medulla oblongata function is

respiratory, vasomotor control center, cardiac
called the vita center

22

pons

serves as a message station between several areas of the brain. It helps relay messages from the cortex and the cerebellum. Without the pons, the brain would not be able to function because messages would not be able to be transmitted, or passed along. It also plays a key role in sleep and dreaming, where REM sleep, or the sleeping state where dreaming is most likely to occur, has been proven to originate here, in the pons.

23

midbrain

integration of numerous cranial nerves reflexes , such as eye movements, papillary reflex, ear reflexes

24

reticular formation

state of consciousness

25

cerebellum

planning and coordination of carol of skilled movements, posture , balance, coordination of sensory information relating to the body position and movement

26

thalamus

crude sensation, coordination of sensory information relayed to cerebrum , involved in emotional response to sensory information, involved in arousal , general processing of information to /from brain

27

hypothalamus

integration/coordination of many autonomic reflexes, hormonal function , involved in arousal, appetite, thermoregulation

28

pineal gland

produces melatonin a timekeeping hormone as part of the bodys biological clock

29

cerebrum

complex processing of sensory and motor information complex integrative functions

30

cerebral cortex

higher level processing of sensory and motor information including conscious sensation and motor control complex integrative functions such as consciousness, language , memory , emotions

31

cerebral tracts

conduction information between CNS areas to facilitate complex processing and integration

32

basal nuclei

integration and regulation of conscious motor control especially posture , walking, other repetitive movements possible roles in thinking and learning

33

the inner protective covering of the brain is called the

meninges

34

the large fluid filled spaces within the brain are called the

ventricles

35

formation of the CSF occurs in the

choroid plexus

36

spinal cord tracts provide conduction paths to and from the brain . the tracts that conduct sensory impulses down the cord from the brain are called ____ tracts

descending

37

the three divisions of the brain that make up the brainstem are the

medulla oblongata, thalamus, midbrain

38

the second largest part of the brain, located just below the posterior portion of the cerebrum is the

cerebellum

39

what consists of several structures that lie beneath the thalamus

hypothalamus

40

the reticular activating system maintains

consciousness

41

the limbic system integrates

emotion

42

the cortex is capable of storing and retrieving information from both short term and long term

memory

43

the set of coordinated commands that control the programmed muscle activity mediated by extrapyramidal pathways is called the

motor program

44

the cerebellum performs what functions

coordinates muscle control of muscle action, helps control posture, controls skeletal muscles to maintain balance

45

impulses from which system play a part in arousing or alerting the cerebrum

reticular activating system

46

CSF circulates through the ventricles and is eventually reabsorbed by the

venous sinsuses

47

a person who is awake, alert and busy would have a predominance of brain waves

beta

48

the part of the brain that can directly influence or inhibit the release of hormones form the pituitary is the

hypothalamus

49

the flax cerebella separates the

two hemispheres of the cerebellum

50

vomiting reflex is mediated by the

medulla

51

there are ___ ventricles in the brain

4

52

when someone close to you dies, you feel a sense of sorrow among other emotions your ability to experience emotions is the result of

limbic system

53

the layer of the meninges least likely to be involved in meningitis is the

dura mater

54

the film terminal is part of the

meninges

55

the cerebrospinal fluid is formed by separation of fluid from the blood in the

choroid plexus

56

the brainstem includes

pons, medulla, midbrain

57

the bodes biological close is controlled by the

pineal body

58

innermost layer of the meninges is the

pia mater

59

the white mater of the cerebellum is called the

arbor vitae

60

the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal nerve were destroyed a person would lose

sensory perception related to that pathway

61

CSF is found in

subdural space, third ventricle, central canal

62

several vital centers are located in the

medulla

63

the cerebellum acts with the _____ to produce skilled movement

cerebrum

64

which part of the brain releases the hormone melatonin

pineal gland

65

which of the following would not be an effecter of the autonomic nervous system

skeletal muscle

66

what might occur from the stimulation of parasympathetic fibers

increased peristalsis in the digestive tract

67

what cranial nerve is responsible for movements of the tongue

hypoglossal

68

small branches fro mthe cervical plexus join which two cranial nerves

hypoglossal and accessory

69

what are characteristics of the sympathetic preganglionic nerurons

they secret ACTH, the pass through the sympathetic trunk, they have long fivers from the CNS to ganglion

70

parasympathetic preganglionic neuron cell bodies are located in the

nuclei of the brainstem and the lateral gray columns of the sacral cord

71

what is not true of the parasympathetic postganglionic neurons

they produce norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter

72

what is associated with ocular movement

eye movement, regulating the size of the pupil, propriception of the eye

73

what is not true about the sympathetic postganglionic neurons

they produce ACTH

74

the nerve called the vagus nerve is the

tenth cranial nerve

75

somatic reflexes consists of

contractions of the skeletal muscles

76

nerves that innervate the floor of the pelvic cavity and some of the surrounding areas are found in the

coccygeal plexus

77

what region of the spinal cord contribute nerves to a plexus

cervical , thoracic , lumbar

78

the caudal equine is

the nerves below the ending of the spinal cord

79

the phrenic nerve is found in the

cervical plexus

80

norepinephrine is liberated at

most sympathetic postganglionic nerve endings

81

what is true about spinal nerves

they are motor and sensory fibers

82

afferent nerves or fivers are found in the

only in the sensory nervous system and autonomic nervous system

83

the cervical plexus is

found deep in the neck

84

the sympathetic responses generally have widespread effects on the body because

preganglionic fibers synapse with several postganglionic fibers

85

what cranial nerves have a functional classification of motor

oculomotor, trochlear, accessory

86

what is the plexus of the spinal nerves

cervical, brachial , lumbar

87

efferent nerves or fibers are found

in the ANS, and somatic nervous system

88

somatic motor and autonomic pathways have what same characteristics

made up of mostly efferent fibers, location of peripheral fibers, have acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter

89

acetylcholine can stimulate

cholinergic receptors

90

beta receptors bind with

norepinephrine

91

whiz is the neurotransmitter in a somatic motor pathway

acetylcholine

92

what color is a cone able to respond

green

93

what is true about temp receptors

they adapt rapidly, can respond to heat and cold, beyond a temp of about 48 degrees celcius sensation of burning pains is felt

94

taste buds are found in the

lining of the mouth, soft palate, tongue

95

pain that is perceived as being a superficial pain is one place but is actually caused somewhere else is the

referred pain

96

what receptors the most common and widely distributed receptors

free nerve endings

97

the number of pure or primary tastes are

5

98

both olfactory receptors and taste buds are

chemoreceptors

99

which tongue papillae are huge dome shaped bumps that form a transverse row near the back of the tongue

circumvallate papillae

100

pacinian corpuscles are

are found in the deep dermis, especially hands and feet

101

chemorecetprs are most limey to be activated by

noxious odors

102

which tongue papillae are large , mushroom shaped bumps found in the anterior two thirds of the tongue surface

fungiform papillae

103

dynamic equilibrium depends on the

crista ampullaris

104

sensory neurons in the sense are unique because they are regularly replaced by

smell

105

what are the primary taste sensations

sweet, sour, bitter

106

what are the vestibule of the inner ear

utricle, saccule

107

how many pairs of spinal nerves are connected to the spinal cord

31

108

afferent nerves do what

carry information into the CNS and help maintain homoeostasis by sensing change in the enviorment

109

efferent fibers do what

carry information away form the CNS, they regulate skeletal muscle, allowing us to defend ourself, gather food, and perform essential tasks

110

how are the spinal nerves attached

by the ventral and dorsal root

111

the dorsal root of each spinal nerve is easily recognized by swelling of the

dorsal root ganglion

112

the ventral rami of most spinal nerves subdivide to form complex

plexuses

113

what does the dorsal rami do

supplies somatic motor and sensory fibers to several smaller nerves

114

what does the phrenic nerve do

innervates the diaphragm and thus directly regulates our breathing

115

mixed cranial nerves contain axons of

sensory and motor neurons

116

brachial plexus is found deep in the

shoulder

117

what nerve supplies the thigh and leg

femoral nerve

118

what is the largest nerve in the body

sciatic nerve

119

the somatic motor nervous system includes

all the voluntary motor pathways outside the CNS

120

somatic reflexes involve

contractions of the skeletal muscle

121

autonomic (visceral) reflexes involve contractions of

smooth and cardiac muscle or secretion from the glands

122

which cranial nerve is responsible for the sense of smell

olfactory

123

the somatic motor system includes all the _____ motor pathways ____ of the CNS

voluntary;outside

124

if the center of a reflex arc is the brain, the response it mediates is called a

cranial reflex

125

a reflex consists of either muscle con ration or a

glandular secretion

126

a subdivision of the nervous system that regulates involuntary effectors is the ____ nervous system

autonomic

127

axon terminals of autonomic neurons release either of two neurotransmitters

norepinephine and ACTH

128

ACTS bind to ____ receptors

cholinergic

129

this is a subdiviosn of the nervous system that regulates involuntary effecter by efferent signals

autonomic nervous system

130

the major functions of the ANS are

regulate heartbeat, smooth muscle contraction, glandular secretion to maintain homeostasis

131

the sympathetic division of the ANS prepares us for

physical activity, increases heart rate, bp, perspiration, body temp

132

sympathetic nervous system is sometimes named the

flight or fight system

133

parasympathetic division does what activities

digestion, defecation, urination
slows down heart rate and respiration

134

parasympathetic phase is sometimes called

rest and repair

135

the first neuron is called a

preganglionic neuron

136

what is the second neuron called

postganglionic neuron

137

axons that release norepinehphrine are called

adrenergic fibers

138

axons that release acetylcholine are called

cholinergic fibers

139

the major function of the sympathetic division is that it serves as a

emergency system

140

when an adequate stimulus acts on a receptor, a potential develops in the receptors membrane , it is called a

receptor potential

141

what receptor is located on or very near the surface of the body

exeteroceptors

142

exterroceptors detect

touch, pain, and temp

143

which receptor is located internally within our organs

interoceptors

144

interoceptors provide information about our

internal enviornment

145

a special kind of interoceptor found in skeletal muscle, joint capsules, and tendons

propriceptors

146

respond to stimuli that in some manner measure changes in pressure or internal environment, inform us of pressure on the skin, or pressure in muscles and legs

mechanoreceptors

147

are activated by the amount or changing concentration of certain chemicals, senses of taste and smell

chemoreceptors

148

activated by changes in temp

thermoreceptors

149

percieve intense stimuli, the overal sensation of pain

nociceptors

150

found in our eyes and respond to light stimuli in the visible spectrum

photoreceptors

151

concentated in the hypothalamus and sense levels of osmotic pressure in our body fluids, important for detecting electrolyte changes

osmoreceptors

152

serve as the primary sensory receptors for pain, heat ,cold, and various forms of touch

dendritic knobs

153

which type of receptor is found only in the eye

photorecpetor

154

discriminative touch is mediated by a flattened or disk shaped free nerve ending called a

tactile disk

155

egg shaped mechanoreceptors that are larger than tactile disks, they are located in or very close tot he dermal papillae of hairless skin areas, they pick up sensation of light touch

tactile corpuscles or meissner corpuscles

156

slow adapting receptors and permit the skin of the fingers to continuously remain sensitive to deep pressure, gives you ability to grasp and object

bulbous corpuscles

157

found in the deep dermis of the skin, especially hands and feet, they respond quickly to sensation of deep pressure, high frequency vibration, and stretch

lamellar corpuslces or pacini corpuscles

158

protects our muscles from tearing internally or from pulling away from their tendons at points of attachment to bone

tendon reflex

159

huge dome shaped bumps arranged in a row that cross the back of the tongue

circumvallate papillae

160

bumps with threadlike projections, scattered among the fungiform papillae

filiform papillae

161

what its he main function of the filiform papillae

determine food texture

162

the ear is divided into which three anatomical parts

external ear, middle ear, inner ear

163

visible part of the ear surrounding the opening of the external acoustic metus

auricle

164

the middle ear contains the three auditory ossicles called

malleus , incus , stapes

165

composed partly of bone and cartilage and fibrous tissue

inner ear, eustachian tube

166

the inner ear is also called the

labyrinth

167

the bony labyrinth has three parts

vestibule, cochlea, and semicricular canlas

168

the clear potassium rich fluid fills the labyrinth is

endolymph

169

tiny bones in the middle ear are the

ossicles

170

the sense organs involved in the sense of balance are found in the vestibule and the

semicircular canlas

171

dynamic equilibrium depends on the functioning of the

crista ampullaris

172

what is the hearing sense organ

organ of corti

173

the tiny bones found in the middle ear are the

ossicles

174

the sense organs involved in the sense of balance are found in the vestibule and the

sermicircular canals

175

dynamic equlibrium depends on the functioning of the

crista ampullaris

176

the innermost coat of the eyeball is the

retina

177

cones are less numerous than rods and are densely concentrated in the

fovea centeralis

178

the substance that fills both chambers of the anterior cavity of the eye is the

aqueous humor

179

as people grow older they tend to become farsighted this condition is called

hyperopia

180

the lacrimal canals empty into the lacrimal sacs and open into an opening or

punctum

181

skeletal muscles that attach to the outside of the eyeball and to the bones of the orbit

extrinsic eye muscles

182

smooth muscle located within the eyes

intrinsic eye msucles

183

clear watery substance often leaks out when the eye is injured

aqueous humor

184

soft gelatin appearance, helps maintain enough internal pressure within the eye to prevent eye ball from collapsin

vitreous humor

185

what are the formed elements in blood

platelet, red blood cell, white bood cell

186

what is used to determine the volume percentage of the red blood cells in whole blood

hematocrit

187

erythrocytes begin their maturation sequence in red bone marrow from nucleated cells known as

adult stem cells

188

a glycoprotein that is secreted to increase oxygen concentration in the tissue is

erythorpoietin

189

what are the granulocytes

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

190

neutrophils are highly mobile and phagocytic. They migrate out of blood vessels and into tissue spaces this process is called

diapedesis

191

a decrease in the amount of white blood cells is called

leukopenia

192

platelets play an important in role in

blood clotting

193

what components are critical to coagulation

prothrobin, thrombin, fibrinogen, fibrin

194

a natural constituent of blood acts as an antithrombin and prevents clots from forming in vessles

heparin

195

the physiological mechanism that dissolves in clots is known as

fibrinolysis

196

produces and secretes compounds called hormones that aid in controlling the bodes metabolic activities

endocrine system

197

are hormones produced and secreted and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. These hormones target other endocrine glands and stimulate their growth and secretion

tropic hormones

198

target reproductive tissues and anabolic hormones stimulate anabolism in their target cells

sex hormones

199

manufactured from cholesterol a four ring lipid

steroid hormones

200

synthesized primarily from proteins, peptides and amino acids rather than from cholesterol

nonsteroid hormones

201

manufactured from cholesterol

steroid horomones

202

are synthesized primarily from proteins, peptides and amino acids that than from cholestol

nonsteroid hormones

203

are unique group of lipids that act as a local hormones

prostaglandins

204

prostaglandins contorl

bp, metabolism, bodily functions, cause uterine contractions

205

the master gland

pituituary gland

206

promotes body growth indirectly by stimulating the liver to produce certain growth factors

growth hormone(soatotropin)

207

vital to the production of milk after pregnancy

prolactin

208

promotes and maintains the growth and development of the thyroid gland

thyroid stimulating hormone

209

promotes and maintains normal growth and development of the cortex of the adrenal gland

adrenocorticoptropic hormone

210

stimulates the follicles of the ovaries to grow and mature

follicle stimulating hormone

211

stimulates the formation and activity of the corpus luteum of the ovary

luteinizing hormone

212

stimulate the growth and maintenance of the gonads

gonadotropins

213

controls thirst, hunger,fatigue, body temp

hypothalamus

214

carries blood from the hypothalamus directly to the anterior pituitary gland ,where the target cells of the different releasing hormones are located

hypophyseal portal system

215

serves as a storage release site for two important hormones ADH and Oxytocin

posterior pituitary gland

216

inhibits production of large amounts of urine

ADH

217

increases arterial bp

vasopressin

218

uncommon condition in which the pt produces abnormally lg amounts of urine because the kidneys are unable to conserve water

diabetes insipidus

219

oxytocin has two primary functions

stimulates contraction of uterine muscles during labor, causes milk ejection into the breast ducts of lacerating women

220

produces melatonin

pineal gland

221

stimulates T4 and T3

thyroid stimulating hormone

222

stimulates the metabolism of almost every body tissue

T3 and T4

223

acts on bone and kidney cells to increase the release of calcium into the blood

parathyroid hormone

224

located above the kidneys

adrenal glands

225

outer portion of gland,

adrenal cortex

226

inner portion of gland

adrenal medulla

227

regulate how mineral salts are processed in the body

mineralocorticoids

228

maintains the sodium homeostasis of the blood

aldosterone

229

functions of the glucocorticoids

accelerate breakdown of proteins into amino acids, energy source, maintaining normal bp, increases as part of stress response

230

sex hormones

gonadocorticoids

231

secretes two important hormones epinephrin and norepinephrine

adrenal medulla