Packet 26 Chapter 26

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1

Dissociate in water

Electrolytes

2

Do not dissociate

Nonelectrolytes

3

The fluid compartments outside the cell

Extracellular

4

Fluid compartments located within the cell

Intracellular

5

Spaces between cells

Interstitial

6

Magnesium excess

Hypermagnesemia

7

Calcium depletion

Hypocalcemia

8

Sodium excess

Hypernatremia

9

Potassium excess

Hyperkalemia

10

Sodium depletion

Hyponatremia

11

An atypical accumulation of the fluid in the interstitial space

Edema

12

A condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins resulting in tissue edema

Hypoproteinemia

13

A disorder entailing deficient mineralocorticoid hormone production by the adrenal cortex

Addison's Disease

14

Regulates sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid

Aldosterone

15

A condition due to excessive water intake that results in net osmosis into tissue cells. This leads to severe metabolic disturbances.

Hypoproteinemia

16

Sodium ions are highest in..

Blood Plasma

17

Potassium ions are highest in...

Intracellular Fluid

18

Phosphate ions are highest in...

Intracellular fluid

19

Bicarbonate ions are highest in...

Interstitial fluid

20

Proteins are highest in...

Intracellular fluid

21

The body's water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the following ions?

Sodium ions

22

Hypoproteinemia is a condition of usually low levels of plasma proteins. This problem is often characterized by ______ .

Tissue edema

23

Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?

Aldosterone

24

Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ______ .

reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention

25

Respiratory acidosis can occur when...

a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction

26

Total body water is not a function of which of the following?

amount of water ingested

27

Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in the body?

aldosterone

28

Where as sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most ______ is found in the intracellular fluid.

Potassium

29

Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?

K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids

30

Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance are particularly common in infants because of their ______.

Inefficient kidneys

31

The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is _____.

Potassium ion concentration in blood plasma

32

Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?

Nucleic acid

33

Which of the following hormones is important in stimulating water conversation in the kidneys?

Antidiuretic hormone

34

The maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result of ________ .

The control of respiratory ventilation

35

The regulation of sodium _______ .

is linked to blood pressure

36

Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly. Given your knowledge of acid-base balance, which of the following is most likely?

Metabolic acidosis

37

A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis?

Metabolic alkalosis

38

One of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is _______ .

a rise in plasma osmolality

39

Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much affect her physiology?

There will be a temporary increase in blood volume.