TX Local State and Government Final Study Guide Flashcards
A regressive tax system means that:
a.everyone pays the same percentage of his or her income in taxes.
b.low-income and middle-income citizens pay a higher proportion of their income in taxes than the wealthy.
c.wealthy citizens pay a higher proportion of their income in taxes than low-income and middle-income citizens.
d.the tax system exempts low-income citizens from paying any taxes.
e.the state has an income tax but not a sales tax.
What is central to the cowboy myth in Texas?
a.the Battle of the Alamo
b.strong community values
e.the notion of rugged individualism
What is one of the alternative non-Anglo experiences being incorporated into Texas culture?
a.Stephen F. Austin's birthday
b.the massacre at Goliad
c.secession from the Union
e.Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassinatioin
What is one of the features of the individualistic subculture?
a.Politics promotes the general welfare.
b.Elites tend to run politics for their own interests.
c.Government intervention in private activities should be kept to a minimum.
d.Nonpartisanship is strong.
e.Politics is the responsibility of every individual.
One of the features of the moralistic subculture is that:
a.politics is a high calling.
b.political parties have only minimal importance.
c.politics is percieved as a dirty business.
d.government should be limited.
e.citizens tolerate political corruption as part of human nature.
One of the features of the traditionalistic subculture is that:
a.political parties are controlled by elites.
b.the primary goal of political elites is to serve the genreal public.
c.politics is the responsibility of every individual.
d.politics is seen as a dirty business.
e.politics is seen as a high calling.
Which of the following subculture combinations has most influenced Texas history and politics?
a.individualistic and moralistic
b.individualistic and Puritan
c.moralistic and traditionalistic
d.individualistic and traditionalistic
e.entrepreneurial and congregational
It is projected that by 2030 a majority of the state's population will be:
Which of the following statements concerning the population groups in Texas is true?
a.Texas is home to more than twenty different Native American groups.
b.During the period of the Republic, Hispanics comprised a majority of the population.
c.At the time of the Civil War, African Americans outnumbered Hispanics in the state.
d.In the 2010 census, Anglos still comprised a majority of the state population.
e.The largest concentration of Asian Americans in Texas is in the state capital.
One of the explanations for the conservative political culture in Texas is the:
a.merging of Hispanic traditions and Puritan moralism.
b.expansion of Hispanics from South Texas across the entire state.
c.geographic dispersal of the African American population.
d.impact of German,Polish,and Czech influences in the state.
e.merging of upper South and lower South Anglo subcultures.
Which of the following is true bout population growth in Texas?
a. Texas is the most populous state in the nation.
b.As much as one-fourth of the state's population is foreign born.
c.In-migration from other states helped transform Texas into a Republican-dominated state.
d.Increased population has not yet had a significant effect on water supplies.
e.National population shifts have moved from the Sunbelt to the Frostbelt.
The Texas Urban Triangle is composed of the area anchored by:
a.Dallas,Fort Worth, and Austin.
b.Dallas-Fort Worth,El Paso, and Houston.
c.El Paso,San Antonio,and Houston.
d.Houston,San Antonio,and Austin.
e.Dallas-Fort Worth,Houston, and San Antonio.
Which of the following statements concerning wealth and income distribution is true?
a.The poorest counties in the state are in East Texas.
b.The poverty rate in Texas is higher than the national average.
c.Hispanics can earn a higher per capita income than African Americans.
d.There is no correlation between ethnicity and poverty.
e.Texas is home to only four billionaires.
All of the following are true about Texas's geography EXCEPT that:
a.Texas is second only to California in landmass.
b.Texerkana is closer to Chicago than to El Paso.The state's size has given transportation disproportionate weight in the state budget.
d.The state's size makes it difficult to win statewide races.
e.The state's size contributes to expensive campaigns.
What was one of the factors that sent Texas's economy into recession in the 1980s?
a.a large rise in oil prices
b.a "bust" in the high-tech industry
c.increasing diversity of the state's economy
d.a large decline in the Mexican peso
e.overdrilling in the Gulf of Mexico
In contrast to the US Constitution, the Texas Constitution:
a. is much more shorter in length.
b. has the quality of statutory law.
c. has been amended only twenty-seven times in its history.
d. was written to provide for maximum flexibility to meet new problems.
e. was drafted in 1865 in response to the Civil War.
What is one feature of the Constitution of Coahuila y Tejas that continues to influence Texas today?
a. existence of a unicameral legislature.
b. protection of Catholicism as the state religion.
c. division of the executive branch into three officials.
d. local control over public education.
e. publication of laws in English and Spanish.
All of the following influenced the move for an independent republic EXCEPT the:
a. enforcement of the principle of federalism by the central government in Mexico City.
b. suspension of the Mexican Constitution of 1824.
c. repudiation of the principle of federalism by Santa Anna.
d. stationing of Mexican army troops on Texas soil.
e. rising tensions between Anglo settlers and Mexican officials.
What did the Constitution of the Republic of Texas do?
a. it created a unicameral legislature.
b. it retained Catholicism as the official state religion.
c. it prohibited clergy from serving in the legislature or as president.
d. it abolished the institution of slavery.
e. it lasted for thirty years.
The one feature of the Constitution of the Republic that is not found in the current state constitution is:
a. an elected governor and lieutenant governor.
b. a bicameral legislature.
c. a plural executive.
d. property rights for married women.
e. annual legislative sessions.
Texas drafted and ratified the Constitution of 1845 because it:
a. became a state in the United States of America.
b. became a state in the Confederate States of America.
c. became a state in the Republic of Mexico.
d. became the Lone Star Republic.
e. reentered the Union after the Civil War.
Under the Civil War Constitution:
a. the two-party system was made stronger.
b. the Southern Baptist Church became the official state church.
c. the basic structure of governmental institutions changed significantly.
d. slave owners were prohibited from freeing their slaves.
e. the Texas government was subject to national control.
What happened after the Civil War?
a. The Constitution of 1866 gave freed slaves the right to vote.
b. The federal government imposed a military government on the state.
c. The Constitution of Reconstruction enjoyed widespread popular support.
d. The Constitution of Reconstruction returned to biennial legislative sessions.
e. The Constitution of Reconstruction strengthened local government.
All of the following can be said about the drafting and ratification of the Constitution of 1876 EXCEPT that:
a. most of the delegates to the constitutional convention were white.
b. the constitution was heavily influenced by agricultural interests.
c. convention delegates reacted against the abuse of power under the Reconstruction government.
d. it enjoyed widespread popular support.
e. it favored centralization of state power at the expense of local control.
What does the current constitution call for?
a. a bicameral legislature that appoints the governor.
b. a bicameral legislature that meets annually.
c. a judicial branch that is popularly elected.
d. a veto power that can be overridden by a simple majority vote of the legislature.
e. a very weak system of separation of powers.
All of the following are weaknesses of the Constitution of 1876 EXCEPT that:
a. the governor has little control over executive branch agencies.
b. the legislative branch is part time.
c. centralization of public schools lead to lack of accountability to local population.
d. excessive detail makes it difficult for the government to adapt to changing circumstances.
e. amending the constitution is the only way to enable the government to adapt to changing circumstances.
The Constitution of 1876:
a. gives the government tremendous power over his or her cabinet.
b. gives low-paid legislators immunity from the influence of interest groups.
c. expands voter participation with the use of poll tax.
d. has been amended more than 470 times.
e. is one of the most concise of all state constitutions.
Which of the following is true about an amendment to the Texas Constitution?
a. It must be proposed by the legislature.
b. It can be recommended by citizen initiative.
c. It requires a simple majority vote in both houses of the legislature.
d. It requires a two-thirds vote of the public to become more effective.
e. It may address only statewide issues.
All of the following are reasons the Constitutional Convention of 1974 failed EXCEPT that:
a. a right-to-work provision was opposed by organized labor.
b. the governor's strong leadership of the effort was resisted by the legislature.
c. the members of the convention were also members of the legislature.
d. several legislators opposed to the effort obstructed the convention's work.
e. the convention could not get two-thirds support to put the new constitution on the ballot.
What can be said about the modern amendment process?
a. More voters participate in constitutional amendment elections than in presidential elections.
b. Interest groups have a minor influence in the process.
c. Texas voters are typically very interested in constitutional amendments.
d. Constitutional amendments never deal with controversial social issues.
e. The person tends to serve the interests of small, organized elites.
Which of the following is a system of governmental relations in which both the state and the national governments derive their authority directly from the people?
a. unitary people
b. national system
d. federal system
e. Dillon rule
The basis for the relationship between state and local governments is the:
a. unitary principle.
b. confederal principle.
c. state's rights principle.
d. federal principle.
e. sovereignty principle.
Which constitutional clause suggests that federal law prevails over the powers of the state when there is a conflict?
b. implied powers clause
c. supremacy clause
d. Tenth Amendment
e. full faith and credit clause
Which constitutional clause ensures that official governmental actions of one state are accepted by other states?
c. interstate compacts
d. supremacy clause
e. full faith and credit clause
The powers of the states under the US Constitution are protected by which the constitutional principle?
a. enumerated powers
b. reserved powers
c. concurrent powers
d. implied powers
e. denied powers
Which model of federalism argues that policy arenas and political relationships cut across all levels of government?
a. state-centered federalism
b. picket-fence federalism
c. coercive federalism
d. dual federalism
e. new federalism
The era of cooperative federalism began because of the:
a. attack on the Bank of the United States
b. Civil War
c. Great Depression.
d. war in Vietnam.
e. September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.
In which era were categorical grants-in-aid the primary vehicle for providing federal funds for public programs?
a. dual federalism
b. cooperative federalism
c. new federalism
d. devolution federalism
e. preemptive federalism
President Richard Nixon attempted to decentralize federal programs through the use of:
a. project grants.
b. formula grants.
d. block grants.
Which of the following is an example of "big government conservatism", in which the federal government is used to achieve a social and economic agenda?
a. Paper Reduction Act of 1995
b. Unfunded Mandates Act of 1995
c. U.S Highway Trust Fund
d. United States v. Lopez
e. No Child Left Behind
When analyzing the impact of federalism on state finances, we can say that Texas:
a. pays more in federal taxes than it receives in federal expenditures.
b. receives more in federal expenditures than it gives in federal taxes.
c. pays more in federal taxes than any other state in the union.
d. receives more in federal expenditures per capita than any other state in the union.
e. pays as much in federal taxes as it receives in federal expenditures.
Which of the following has the primary responsibility to lobby the federal government for an additional federal dollars?
c. Office of Federalism and Revenue Equalization
d. Office of State-Federal Relations
e. Office of Fiscal Federalism
Which of the following reduced tariffs among the United States, Mexico, and Canada?
a. transnational regionalism
b. the maquiladora program
c. The North American Free Trade Agreement
d. The Central American Free Trade Agreement
e. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
All of the following are major concerns about US- Mexico border relations under the North American Free Trade Agreement EXCEPT:
a. cheap labor in South Texas taking jobs from Mexico.
b. Mexican trucking on American highways.
c. domination of American corporations over the Mexican economy.
d. environmental problems.
e. human rights concerns about working conditions in Mexico.
Which program made it possible for temporary workers from Mexico to enter the United States to work?
a. Mexican Inclusion Art
b. Bracero Program
c. Nationalization Act
d. Sanctuary Cities Program
e. DREAM Act
An interest group:
a. tries to win elections and take control of governmental institutions.
b. attempts to influence governmental decisions.
c. is any group that opposes those who hold political power.
d. is another name for a political party.
e. always seeks objectives that are contrary to the common good.
Why do we see evidence of a class bias in the interest group system in Texas?
a. Women are more likely than men to join interest groups.
b. Young people are more likely than older people to join interest groups.
c.Wealthier people are more likely than those from lower socioeconomic groups to join interest groups.
d. Minorities are more likely than Anglos to join interest groups.
e. People with lower levels of education are more likely than those with higher levels of education to join interest groups.
According to the pluralist theory of politics:
a. there are so many groups that usually just one or two end up dominating the political process.
b. elections have very little impact on public policy.
c. most groups do not really compete with one another, but they enjoy considerable consensus on issues.
d. groups always harm the long term interests of society as a whole.
e. most people have access to the political process through the leaders of the group to which they belong.
According to the elitist theory of politics:
a. policy decisions are made by a few individuals.
b. elections have the biggest influence on policy decisions.
c. the large number of groups means no single group can dominate the political process.
d. political elites are drawn from a wide variety of backgrounds.
e. the interests of elites always conflict with the interests of other classes of society.
One argument for the pluralist theory of interest groups in Texas is the:
a. dominance of state politics by Anglo businessmen, oilmen, bankers, and lawyers.
b. common background of those who lead large corporations.
c. absence of single-issue groups.
d. development of public interest and minority groups.
e. decline of the conservative business establishment.
Which of the following is the key factor in strengthening an interest group's power and influence?
a. The group is internally unified.
b. The group is concentrated in one geographic area.
c. The group is known as a manipulator of data.
d. The group is large, with diverse and fragmented goals.
e. The group does not care about public relations.
Which of the following statements best describes big business interests in Texas?
a. Big businesses is monolithic and generally speaks with one voice on most policy issues.
b. Big business has generally supported the policy interests of labor.
c. Big business is dominated by the oil and gas industry.
d. Many business interests organize to influence public policy through their trade associations.
e. Trial lawyers and consumer groups are closely aligned with big business.
Lobbying for change in public elementary and secondary education is complicated by he fact that:
a. teachers' associations tend to support the same goals as school boards.
b. public schools rarely face budget cuts.
c. different educational associations sometimes seek conflicting interests and goals.
d. university alumni are politically influential.
e. the state usually raises taxes when schools need money.
All of the following are public interest groups EXCEPT:
a. the Sierra Club.
b. the Texas Medical Association.
c. the Gray Panthers.
d. Public Citizen.
e. Americans Disabled for Attendant Programs Today.
Which of the following is a minority interest group?
a. is as strong as business in Texas because Texas is a "right-to-work" state.
b. generally sides with the trial lawyers on many issues.
c. comprises up to half of the workforce in Texas.
d. has become even more powerful with the rise of the Republican Party.
e. generally opposes public interest groups.
The Texas Freedom Network:
a. took control of the leadership of the Texas Republican Party in 1994.
b. was the earliest anticommunist interest group.
c. works to counter the Christian right.
d. lobbies for the telecommunications industry.
e. supports antiabortion legislation.
What can be said about political action committees in Texas?
a. They have no limits on how much they can give to state and local nonjudicial candidates.
b. They are limited to giving no more than $2,400 per state and local candidate.
c. They are banned from making direct contributions to state and local candidates.
d. They focus more on protests than elections.
e. They care more about partisan success in elections than interest group victories.
The most important and influential phase of the direct lobbying process takes place:
a. after a bill has gone to the governor for signature.
b. when sitting in the House and Senate galleries.
c. when writing a campaign check for a candidate.
d. when testifying at public hearings.
e. when meeting with legislators before a bill gets to a vote.
Interest groups contribute money to political candidates to:
a. Make sure one party wins the election.
b. avoid having to perform political favors later.
c. cultivate a more favorable reputation with the voters.
d. get access to policymakers.
e. get news media attention.
All of the following are criteria the media use to select which political events and subjects to cover EXCEPT that the story:
a. must have a significant impact on its audience.
b. must generate considerable interest.
c. must be about an unusual or unfamiliar situation or individual.
d. should occur in some proximity to the readers and viewers.
e. should be timely.
The ability of conservative activists to minimize the influence of the media in the 2011 debate over the budget is an example of failed:
a. agenda setting.
b. generation of interest.
d. agenda building
What does covering the "horse race" refer to?
a. news coverage of campaign polls instead of legitimate polls.
b. news coverage of campaign strategies and personalities instead of substantive policy issues.
c. paid television advertising instead of news coverage.
d. negative attack ads instead of positive ads.
e. news media fact checking of campaign accuracy.
When thinking about the role of television in election campaigns, we can say that:
a. voters trust campaign ads more than they do news analyses of those ads.
b. the candidate who spends the the most money on television ads always wins the election.
c. local and national television stations broadcast an average of ten minutes a night of discussion or debate by candidates.
d. paid television advertising does a better job of covering complex issues then print newspaper reporting.
e. "horse race" coverage is more expensive than issue coverage.
Which of the following statements is NOT true about media coverage of recent gubernatorial campaigns in Texas?
a. Governor Rick Perry boycotted all meetings with newspaper editorial boards in 2010.
b. Most people said they believed the TV ads that George W. Bush and Ann Richards used in their 1994 race more than they believed the accuracy views that newspapers published about the ads.
c. Republican candidate Clayton Williams saw his campaign fall apart with increased news media scrutiny in 1990.
d. In 2002, Rick Perry used television spots to link opponent Ricky Sanchez to the murder of a federal law enforcement officer.
e. In 2010, Governor Rick Perry debated his Democratic opponent, former Houston Mayor Bill White, in an unprecedented five televised debates.
Which act requires a governmental body to post advance notices of all its meetings?
a. Open Meetings Act
b. Open Hearings Act
c. Public Information Act
d. Freedom of Information Act
e. Freedom of the Press Act
Which act allows the state attorney general's office to decide disputes over whether specific governmental records can be kept confidential?
a. Open Meetings Act
b. Open Hearings Act
c. Public Information Act
d. Freedom of Information Act
e. Freedom of the Press Act
One reason that the governmental bodies can hold closed-door meetings is to:
a. debate overrides of the governor's vetoes.
b. discuss lawsuits in which they are involved.
c. deliberate over border security issues.
d. investigate charges of ethical malfeasance.
e. plan political strategy.
When it comes to media bias, we can say that:
a. television reporters are more liberal and newspaper reporters are more conservative.
b. corporate media ownership tends to skew news decisions in a more liberal direction.
c. the process of selecting what will be covered and how it is controversial.
d. the fact that media outlets are businesses has no impact on news covering decisions.
e. the new world of online blogging has made media coverage of politics more susceptible to viewpoint biases.
The news media in Texas began to challenge the political and business establishment with the:
a. decline of frontier newspapers.
b. censure of Joe McCarthy.
c. runoff election between conservative Allan Shivers and liberal Ralph Yarborough.
d. Sharpstown stock fraud scandal.
e. consolidation of media ownership
Because of the consolidation of media ownership across the the country:
a. frontier newspapers disappeared.
b. newspapers lost their editorial autonomy.
c. more newspapers opened for business than closed.
d. concerns were more raised about the loss of diversity of editorial viewpoints.
e. newspapers expanded their staffs.
What does research about Americans' consumption of news find?
a. Radio is a more frequently used medium for news than television.
b. Younger Americans rely more on the Internet than traditional media outlets.
c. Twitter users link more to political stories than bloggers.
d. Talk radio programs are evenly balanced between liberal and conservative commentary.
e. the print media tend to take their cues about what to cover from television and radio.
What can we say about the Capitol press corps in recent years?
a. Even large papers can over only a fraction of state government activities.
b. Turnover in staff has lead to a larger percentage of reporters with more than ten years of experience.
c. Dallas and Houston newspapers have the biggest Austin bureau staffs.
d. With news media consolidation, the Capitol press corps has expanded in size.
e. Thinning editorial staffs have led to increased accuracy in political reporting.
Which of the following is the best example of spin?
a. the use of websites by legislators to keep constituents informed about legislations.
b. the purchase of television airtime by a governor to communicate directly to the public.
c. the use by special interest groups of public relations specialists to promote their causes.
d. the effort by lobbyists to provide insider information to reporters.
e. a public official's media specialist trying to present information or a news story in the best possible light.
When it comes to the problem of ignorance of public affairs, we can say that:
a. there are fewer opportunities to learn what is going on in the political arena than ever before.
b. Americans actually consume more news now than ever before.
c. increased entertainment alternatives compete for young people's time.
d. the Internet has led young people to consume more news than those who are older.
e. ignorance of public affairs is a problem for special interest groups as much as it is for the general public.
What is a political party?
a. a special type of interest group.
b. a group that represents a narrower range of policy interest than an interest group.
c. any group that opposes those who hold political power.
d. an organization that seeks to elect officeholders under a given label.
e. a group that always seeks objectives that are contrary to the common good.
Raza Unida became became a major force as a third party because:
a. the Democratic Party expanded voter registration.
b. the Democratic Party was not responsive to the concerns of the Hispanic voters.
c. the Republican Party was not sensitive to the needs of the low-income voters.
d. the Democratic Party at that time was too liberal.
e. Texas outlawed the poll tax.
Why has the Libertarian Party been successful in recent years?
a. It has been able to win at least 5 percent of the vote in at least one statewide race each election cycle.
b. It has won at least one statewide office each election cycle.
c. It has allied itself with La Raza Unida to form a more powerful third-party movement.
d. It has focused its efforts on building support in different ethnic groups.
e. It has prompted a change in the law to allow for runoffs in the general election.
What is one reason why Texas has a two-party system?
a. The state is not diverse enough to have more than two parties.
b. State law bans the formation of parties.
c. The large number of interest groups makes third parties unnecessary.
d. Texans tend to be too ideological for third parties.
e. The simple plurality election system inhibits the success of third parties.
Political parties increase accountability of elected officials to the people by:
a. allowing independent candidates to get on the ballot.
b. encouraging bipartisanship in the legislature.
c. giving voters an opportunity to vote out failed officeholders.
d. allowing for runoff elections in primaries.
e. encouraging the proliferation of third parties.
Which of the following is TRUE about the function of political parties to organize and manage government in recent years?
a. Split party control of the legislature has led to an increase of bipartisan lawmaking.
b. Republican majorities in the legislature have led to a weakening of the bipartisan tradition.
c. Democratic governors have been successful in convincing Republican lawmakers to switch parties.
d. Smaller percentages of voters are turning out for elections.
e. Voter anger has led to persistent alternation in party control of the legislature.
Democratic Party dominance over Texas politics can be traced to:
a. independence from Mexico.
b. state politics in the Confederacy.
c. Republican-dominance Reconstruction government.
d. the New Deal.
e. the election of the first president from Texas.
What is one of the arguments of the "class politics" thesis of Democratic Party dominance?
a. Established agriculture leaders allied themselves with banking and industrial leaders to preserve their power.
b. Oppressive Reconstruction government generated anti-Republican sentiments.
c. Republican leaders tried to forge alliances with white farmers and African Americans.
d. Republican support for Prohibition created anti- Republican sentiments.
e. the Populist Party supported restrictive voter registration laws.
Factionalism in the Democratic Party in Texas:
a. was caused by a resurgence of the Republican Party during the New Deal.
b. was caused by Franklin Roosevelt's decision to run for a third term.
c. compensated for the lack of a competitive two-party system.
d. allowed the Republican Party to win the govern ship in the 1950s.
e. led to internal party battles over race, religion, and Communism.
Who were the "Shivercrats"?
a. liberal Democrats who opposed the conservative establishment.
b. Republicans who voted for Democrats in the general election.
c. liberal Democrats led by Ralph Yarborough.
d. Democrats who supported the election of Republican Dwight Eisenhower.
e. minorities who voted for Republicans in the New Deal era.
All of the following are factors contributing to the rise of a two-party system in Texas EXCEPT:
a. the popularity of southern President Jimmy Carter in the 1970s.
b. the creation of minority- dominated electoral districts.
c. low-income minority support for liberal economic policies.
d. the stronger organization of the Republican Party.
e. the election of Republican Governor Bill Clements in 1978.
Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning the extent of Republican Party dominance in Texas today?
a. Republicans control the Texas House but not the Texas Senate.
b. Republicans control the governor's mansion but not the legislature.
c. Republicans have never controlled a majority of the state's congressional delegation.
d. Republicans control only one of the state's two U.S Senate seats.
e. Republicans have won every statewide race since 1996.
Which of the following is TRUE about the partisan alignment of Texas voters?
a. Republicans now outnumber Democrats two to one in party identification.
b. Democrats continue to maintain some parity with Republicans in party identification.
c. Republicans have been successful in winning a majority of Hispanic voters in recent years.
d. A majority of Texans are registered independents.
e. The tea party now outnumbers the Republican Party in party identification.
a. elect delegates directly to the state convention.
b. choose presidential electors.
c.adopt resolutions for possible inclusion in the party's state platform.
d. elect county chairpersons.
e. elect members to the party national committee.
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the party organization in Texas?
a. There are roughly 500 election precincts in the state.
b. Precinct conventions are held only in presidential election years.
c. If no one shows up to a precinct convention, its votes are transferred to a neighboring precinct.
d. State convention delegates certify the names of party nominees to the secretary of state.
e. Several small counties may be combined into one senatorial district convention.