Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1

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1

Gross Anatomy

the study of body structures visible to the naked eye

2

Anatomical position

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body is erect, with feet slightly apart, head and toes pointed forward, and arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward

3

Axial Skeleton

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relating to the head, neck, and trunk of body.
the axis of the body

4

Appendicular Skeleton

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limbs and their attachments to the axis

5

Acromial

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point of the shoulder

6

Antebrachial

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forearm

7

Axillary

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armpit

8

Buccal

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cheek

9

Carpal

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wrist

10

Coxal

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hip

11

Crural

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leg

12

Digital

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fingers/toes

13

Femoral

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thigh

14

Fibular

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side of the leg

15

Frontal

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forehead

16

Hallux

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great toe

17

Inguinal

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groin

18

Mammary

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breast region

19

Manus

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hand

20

Mental

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chin

21

Orbital

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bony eye socket

22

Patellar

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anterior kneecap

23

Pedal

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foot

24

Pollex

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Thumb

25

Pubic

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genital region

26

Sternal

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breast bone

27

Tarsal

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ankle

28

Calcaneal

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heel of the foot

29

Dorsum

back

30

Gluteal

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buttocks

31

Lumbar

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the loin

32

Occipital

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back of the head/ skull

33

Olecranal

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posterior elbow

34

Otic

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ear

35

Perineal

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between anus and external genitalia

36

Plantar

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sole of foot

37

Popliteal

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back of knee

38

Sacral

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region between hips

39

Scapular

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shoulder blade

40

Sural

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calf

41

superior/inferior

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above/below

42

Anterior/Posterior

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front/back

43

Medial/Lateral

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toward the midline/ away from the midline

44

Cranial/Caudal

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toward the head/ toward the tail

45

Dorsal/Ventral

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backside/bellyside

46

Proximal/Distal

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nearer the trunk/farther from the trunk

47

Superficial/Deep

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towards the surface/away from the surface

48

Sagittal Plane

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runs longitudinally and divides into right and left sides

49

Frontal Plane

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divides the body into anterior and posterior parts

50

Transverse Plane

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runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior

51

Dorsal body cavity

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1.Cranial cavity
2.Vertebral (spinal) cavity

52

Ventral body cavity

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-thoracic cavity
-abdominopelvic cavity

53

Serous Membrane

double layered membranes covering the outer surface of organs

54

Parietal

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lines the cavity walls

55

Visceral

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covers the external surface of the organs

56

Peritoneum

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covers the abdominal cavity and its organs

57

Pleura

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covers the lungs

58

Pericardium

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covers the heart

59

Abdominopelvic quadrants (4)

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-right upper
-right lower
-left upper
-left lower

60

Abdominopelvic regions (9)

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-umbilical
-epigastric
-hypogastric
-left iliac
-right iliac
-left lumbar
-right lumbar
-left hypochondriac
-right hypochondriac