chapter 15, 16, 17

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Microbiology
Chapters 15-17
updated 7 years ago by Wcc2014
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1

what is the term used for the ability of some microbes to alter their surface molecules and evade destruction by the hosts antibodies

antigenic variation

2

which statement is false

coagulase destroys blood clots

3

are exotoxins more potent than endotoxins

yes

4

are endotoxins gram positive or gram negative

gram negative

5

the visible signs of viral infections

cytopathic effects

6

baceterial iron binding proteins

siderophores

7

is staphylococcal enterotoxin produced by staphylococcus aureus growing in the host intestines

no

8

which of the following statements about M protein in false

it is readily digested by phagocytes

9

polio is transmitted by ingestion of water contaminated with feces containing polio virus. What portal of entry does polio virus use?

mucous membranes only

10

all of the following bacteria release endotoxin except

clostridium botulinum

11

endotoxins in sterile injectable drugs could cause

septic shock symptoms

12

in general LD50 for exotoxins is much greater than the LD50 for endotoxins

false

13

the M protein enhances the virulence of streptoccus by preventing phagocytosis

true

14

In AB exotoxins, ,the A component binds to the host cell receptor so that the B component can enter the cell

false

15

most symptoms of endotoxins can be treated with administration of anti-endotoxin antibodies

false

16

infections with some viruses may induce chromosomal changes that alter the growth properties of host cells

true

17

many pathogens use the same portal for entry an exit from the body

true

18

Which of the following statements concerning antigen-presenting cells is true?



They are involved in activating T cells.

19

What is the correct sequence of events for activation of a B cell by a T-dependent antigen?

(1) Immunoglobulin receptors on the B cell recognize and bind the antigen. (2) An antigen fragment in complex with MHC class 2 is displayed on the B cell's surface. (3) The MHC-antigen complex binds a receptor on a TH cell. (4) The TH cell secretes cytokines that activate the B cell.

20

If a patient has been exposed to an antigen for the first time, which class of immunoglobulin appears first?

IgM

21

Which type of cell directly attacks infected cells?

Cytotoxic T-cells

22

Immune cells that secrete cytokines and activate other immune cells are:

Helper T-cells

23

HIV directly infects T-cells. Why is this problematic for cell-mediated immunity?

Cytotoxic T-cells begin to attack the virally infected T-cells, reducing the number of T-cells in the body

24

How do helper T-cells and cytotoxic T-cells work together?

Helper T-cells produce cytokines to activate other cells of the immune system.

25

Which of the following statements concerning cellular immunity is FALSE?

Cellular immunity involves cells that recognize antigens and make specific antibodies against them.

26

An individual may be exposed to a pathogen and become infected without actually getting sick. This is known as a subclinical infection. Even in subclinical infections, the individual's adaptive immune system can generate memory for the pathogen. What type of adaptive immunity is this?

naturally acquired active immunity

27

Where are MHC molecules located on a cell?

On the surface of the cell

28

What is a feature of the small fragments presented by MHC-I proteins?

They are small peptides, roughly 8-10 amino acids long.

29

Which organelle assists directly with the presentation of MHC-I antigens?

The endoplasmic reticulum

30

When does MHC-II loading occur?

During the fusion of vesicles containing MHC-II proteins with vesicles containing digested pathogens

31

Which of the cells listed below can present antigens on Class II MHC proteins?

Macrophages

32

What is apoptosis?

The process of programmed cell death.

33

What is the function of the CD8 receptor?

Bind to MHC molecules

34

What is the fate of activated cytotoxic T-cells?

They proliferate into a clone of cells specific to the same antigen; some of these cells then differentiate into long-lived memory T-cells, while others mature to attack infected cells.

35

Which molecule triggers apoptosis?

Granzyme

36

Which event happens first during cytotoxic T-cell activation?

CD8 binds to MHC molecules of infected cells

37

Which receptor on the helper T-cell recognizes the specific antigen from an antigen-presenting cell?

TCR

38

TH2 cells produce cytokines that activate

B cells.

39

Which proteins on the antigen-presenting cell are recognized by the helper T-cell?

MHC proteins

40

When do helper T-cells develop into TH1 or TH2 cells?

After proliferation into a clonal population

41

Natural killer cells are activated by

TH1 cells.

42

What type of immunity results from vaccination?

artificially acquired active immunity

43

Newborns' immunity due to the transfer of antibodies across the placenta is an example of

naturally acquired passive immunity.

44

Which of the following statements is NOT a possible outcome of antigen-antibody reaction?

clonal deletion

45

When an antibody binds to a toxin, the resulting action is referred to as

neutralization.

46

The specificity of an antibody is due to

the variable portions of the H and L chains.

47

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of B cells?

They recognize antigens associated with MHC I.

48

Plasma cells are activated by a(n)

antigen.

49

The antibodies found in mucus, saliva, and tears are

IgA.

50

The antibodies found on the surface of B cells, and which always exist as monomers, are

IgD.

51

In addition to IgG, the antibodies that can fix complement are

IgM

52

The most abundant class of antibodies in serum is

IgG.

53

Memory cells do not require B cell receptors.

False

54

Plasma cells will eventually differentiate into memory cells.

False

55

The variable region of the antibody is solely responsible the significant diversity of antigen targets.

False

56

Only dendritic cells produce interleukins.

False

57

Cytokines are protein-based chemical messengers that allow for communication between cells of the immune system.

True

58

IL-2, produced by TH cells,

stimulates TH cell maturation

59

Which of the following statements about natural killer cells is FALSE?

They are stimulated by an antigen.

60

The following events occur in cellular immunity. What is the third step?

TH cell produces cytokines.
Dendritic cell takes up antigen.
TH cells proliferate.
Antibodies are produced.
Antigen enters M cell.

TH cells proliferate.

61

Which of the following destroys virus-infected cells?

CTL

62

Which of the following bacterial components would most likely result in B cell stimulation by T-independent antigens?

capsule

63

In the figure, what can attach to a host cell?
a and c
b and c
b
a and d
e

e

64

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

The constant region of a heavy chain is the same for all antibodies.

65

In the figure, the arrow at time (c) indicates

the secondary response.

66

Which of the following is the best definition of antigen?

a chemical that elicits an antibody response and can combine with these antibodies

67

The following events elicit an antibody response. What is the third step?

TH cell recognizes antigen-digest and MHC II.

68

In the figure, which areas are similar for all IgG antibodies?

c and d

69

Which of the following is not a mechanism used by pathogens to avoid phagocytosis?

causing the release of the lysosome contents inside the phagocyte, killing it
attacking the phagosome, allowing the pathogen to reproduce inside the phagocyte
destroying the pseudopods to prevent ingestion by the phagocyte
preventing the formation of the phagolysosome

destroying the pseudopods to prevent ingestion by the phagocyte

70

the dermis is composed of connective tissue and provides protection from the external environment

true

71

the inflammatory response can only be trigged by an infection

false

72

histamine and kinins cause increased blood flow and capillary permeability

true

73

ingestion of certain lactic acid bacteria has been show to be beneficial for function and health of the intestinal tract

true

74

which of the following cells is not an APC

natural killer cells

75

which of the following is not a characteristic of cellular immunity

it can inhibit the immune response

76

the antibodies that can bind to large parasites are

IgE

77

What are the large antibodies that agglutinate antigens

IgM

78

an antibody's Fc region can be bound by

macrophages

79

cytokine storms negatively impact human health

true

80

which of the following is found normally in serum

complement

81

which of the following is not a membrane disrupting toxin

ab toxin