RadReview Infection Control

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1

Body substances and fluids that are considered infectious or potentially infectious include

sputum

synovial fluid

cerebrospinal fluid

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

2

Where is the "sterile corridor" located?
A.
Just outside the surgical suite
B.
Immediately inside each operating room door
C.
Between the draped patient and the instrument table
D.
At the foot end of the draped patient

C.
Between the draped patient and the instrument table

3

Which of the following is a violation of correct sterile technique?
A.
Gowns are considered sterile in the front down to the waist, including the arms.
B.
Sterile gloves must be kept above the waist level.
C.
Persons in sterile dress should pass each other face to face.
D.
A sterile field should not be left unattended.

C.
Persons in sterile dress should pass each other face to face.

4

The type of isolation practiced to prevent the spread of infectious agents in aerosol form is
A.
respiratory isolation
B.
protective isolation
C.
contact isolation
D.
strict isolation

A.
respiratory isolation

5

The most frequent site of hospital-acquired infection is the
A.
urinary tract.
B.
blood.
C.
respiratory tract.
D.
digestive tract.

A.
urinary tract.

6

An iatrogenic infection is one caused by
A.
physician intervention.
B.
blood-borne pathogens.
C.
chemotherapy.
D.
infected droplets.

A.
physician intervention.

7

The following instructions should be given to a patient following a barium sulfate contrast examination:

Increase fluid and fiber intake for several days.

Changes in stool color will occur until all barium has been evacuated.

Contact a physician if no bowel movement occurs in 24 hours.

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

8

Chemical substances that are used to kill pathogenic bacteria are called
1. antiseptics.
2. germicides.
3. disinfectants.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

9

Federal regulations regarding infection control in the workplace, as amended by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), make which of the following requirements?

Hepatitis B immunizations must be made available to all hospital employees.

Puncture-proof containers must be provided for all used needles.

Follow-up care must be provided to any staff accidentally exposed to blood splash/needle stick.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

10

Each of the following is an example of a fomite except
A.
a doorknob.
B.
a tick.
C.
a spoon.
D.
an x-ray table.

B.
a tick.

11

Examples of means by which infectious microorganisms can be transmitted via indirect contact include

a fomite.

a vector.

nasal or oral secretions.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

1 and 2 only

12

Lyme disease is caused by bacteria carried by deer ticks. The tick bite may cause fever, fatigue, and other associated symptoms. This is an example of transmission of an infection by
A.
droplet contact.
B.
a vehicle.
C.
the airborne route.
D.
a vector.

D.
a vector.

13

The complete killing of all microorganisms is termed
A.
surgical asepsis.
B.
medical asepsis.
C.
sterilization.
D.
disinfection

C.
sterilization.

14

What type of precautions prevent the spread of infectious agents in droplet form?
A.
Contact precautions
B.
Airborne precautions
C.
Protective isolation
D.
Strict isolation

B.
Airborne precautions

15

Contaminated needles are disposed of in special containers in which of the following ways?
A.
Recap the needle, remove syringe, dispose of.
B.
Do not recap needle, remove from syringe, dispose of.
C.
Recap the needle, dispose of entire syringe.
D.
Do not recap needle, dispose of entire syringe.

D.
Do not recap needle, dispose of entire syringe.

16

The risk of inoculation with HIV is considered high for which of the following entry sites?

Broken skin

Perinatal exposure

Accidental needle stick

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

17

Guidelines for cleaning contaminated objects or surfaces include which of the following?

Clean from the least contaminated to the most contaminated areas.

Clean in a circular motion, starting from the center and working outward.

Clean from the top down.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
1 and 3 only

18

Which ethical principle is related to sincerity and truthfulness?
A.
Beneficence
B.
Autonomy
C.
Veracity
D.
Fidelity

C.
Veracity

19

Sterile technique is required when contrast agents are administered
A.
rectally.
B.
orally.
C.
intrathecally.
D.
through a nasogastric tube.

C.
intrathecally.

20

Diseases whose mode of transmission is through the air include

TB.

mumps.

rubella.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

21

A nosocomial infection is a(n)
A.
infection acquired from frequent handshaking.
B.
upper respiratory tract infection.
C.
infection acquired in a hospital.
D.
type of rhinitis.

C.
infection acquired in a hospital

22

The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus may be transmitted

by sharing contaminated needles.

from mother to child during birth.

by intimate contact with body fluids.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

23

Indirect modes of disease transmission include

airborne

fomite

vector

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

24

Hemovac or Penrose drains are used for
A.
bile duct drainage.
B.
tissue drainage of wounds or postoperative drainage.
C.
decompression of the gastrointestinal tract.
D.
feeding patients who are unable to swallow food.

B.
tissue drainage of wounds or postoperative drainage.

25

According to the CDC, all the following precaution guidelines are true except
A.
airborne precautions require that the patient wear a mask.
B.
masks are indicated when caring for patients on MRSA precautions.
C.
patients under MRSA precautions require a negative-pressure room.
D.
gloves are indicated when caring for a patient on droplet precautions.

C.
patients under MRSA precautions require a negative-pressure room.

26

The risk of inoculation with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is considered high for the following entry sites:
1. Broken skin
2. Shared needles
3. Conjunctiva

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

27

Techniques that function to reduce the spread of microbes are termed
A.
surgical asepsis.
B.
medical asepsis.
C.
sterilization.
D.
disinfection.

B.
medical asepsis.

28

All the following rules regarding proper hand washing technique are correct except
A.
keep hands and forearms lower than elbows.
B.
use paper towels to turn water on.
C.
avoid using hand lotions whenever possible.
D.
carefully wash all surfaces and between fingers.

C.
avoid using hand lotions whenever possible.

29

Protective or "reverse" isolation is required in which of the following conditions?

TB

Burns

Leukemia

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

30

The infection streptococcal pharyngitis ("strep throat") is caused by a
A.
virus.
B.
fungus.
C.
protozoon.
D.
bacterium.

D.
bacterium.

31

A patient with an upper respiratory tract infection is transported to the radiology department for a chest examination. Who should be masked?

Technologist

Transporter

Patient

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
3 only

32

Body substances and fluids that are considered infectious or potentially infectious include

feces.

breast milk.

wound drainage.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

33

Handwashing is the easiest way of preventing spread of microorganisms, and health care professionals should wash their hands before and after every patient. Additionally, it is particularly essential that the radiographer wash his/her hands after contact with
1. patients who are at risk of infection.
2. blood/body fluids.
3. patients with known communicable diseases.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only

34

When disposing of contaminated needles, they are placed in a special container using what procedure?
A.
Recap the needle, remove the syringe, and dispose of the needle.
B.
Do not recap the needle, remove the syringe, and dispose of the needle.
C.
Recap the needle and dispose of the entire syringe.
D.
Do not recap the needle and dispose of the entire syringe.

D.
Do not recap the needle and dispose of the entire syringe.

35

An autoclave is used for
A.
dry heat sterilization.
B.
chemical sterilization.
C.
gas sterilization.
D.
steam sterilization.

D.
steam sterilization.

36

In which stage of infection do the infective microbes begin to multiply?
A.
Latent period
B.
Incubation period
C.
Disease phase
D.
Convalescent phase

B.
Incubation period

37

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding a two-member team performing mobile radiography on a patient with MRSA precautions?

One radiographer remains "clean"—that is, he or she has no physical contact with the patient.

The radiographer who positions the mobile unit also makes the exposure.

The radiographer who positions the cassette also retrieves the cassette and removes it from its plastic protective cover.

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

A.
1 and 2 only

38

Of the four stages of infection, which is the stage during which the infection is most communicable?
A.
Latent period
B.
Incubation period
C.
Disease phase
D.
Convalescent phase

C.
Disease phase

39

The cycle of infection includes which of the following components?

Reservoir of infection

Susceptible host

Means of transmission

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

40

The radiographer must perform which of the following procedures prior to entering a contact isolation room with a mobile x-ray unit?

Put on gown and gloves only.

Put on gown, gloves, mask, and cap.

Clean the mobile x-ray unit.

A.
1 only
B.
2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
2 and 3 only

A.
1 only

41

All the following statements regarding hand hygiene and skin care are correct except
A.
hands should be cleansed before and after each patient examination.
B.
faucets should be opened and closed with paper towels.
C.
hands should be smooth and free from chapping.
D.
any cracks or abrasions should be left uncovered to facilitate

D.
any cracks or abrasions should be left uncovered to facilitate healing.

42

Which of the following can be transmitted via infected blood?

HBV

AIDS

TB

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

43

An animal host of an infectious organism that transmits the infection via a bite or sting is a
A.
vector
B.
fomite
C.
host
D.
reservoir

A.
vector

44

Radiographers should wear gloves when they might come in contact with
1. wounds.
2. mucous membrane.
3. body fluids containing blood.

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

45

Hypochlorite bleach (Clorox) and Lysol are examples of
A.
antiseptics.
B.
bacteriostatics.
C.
antifungal agents.
D.
disinfectants.

D.
disinfectants.

46

An inanimate object that has been in contact with an infectious microorganism is termed a
A.
vector.
B.
fomite.
C.
host.
D.
reservoir.

B.
fomite.

47

Diseases that require contact precautions include

MRSA

Clostridium difficile (C-diff)

TB

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

B.
1 and 2 only

48

The most effective method of sterilization is
A.
dry heat.
B.
moist heat.
C.
pasteurization.
D.
freezing.

B.
moist heat.

49

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggests that health care workers protect themselves and their patients from blood and body fluid contamination by using
A.
strict isolation precautions.
B.
standard precautions.
C.
respiratory precautions.
D.
sterilization.

B.
standard precautions.

50

An illness of unknown or obscure cause is said to be
A.
systemic.
B.
epidemic.
C.
idiopathic.
D.
pathogenic.

C.
idiopathic.

51

The cycle of infection includes which of the following components?

Reservoir of infection

Pathogenic organism

Means of transmission

A.
1 only
B.
1 and 2 only
C.
1 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

D.
1, 2, and 3

52

In which of the following situations should a radiographer wear protective eye gear (goggles)?

When performing an upper GI radiographic examination

When assisting the radiologist during an angiogram

When assisting the radiologist in a biopsy/aspiration procedure

A.
1 and 2 only
B.
1 and 3 only
C.
2 and 3 only
D.
1, 2, and 3

C.
2 and 3 only