packet 23 chapter 23 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 9 years ago by rubigordils
2,506 views
updated 9 years ago by rubigordils
Grade levels:
College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube.

Peristalsis

2

Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs into simpler units.

Digestion

3

Enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule.

Hydrolysis

4

Process by which simpler chemical units pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph.

Absorbtion

5

Produces enzymes that break down all categories of foodstuffs

Pancreas

6

Increases surface area for absorption via villi and microvilli

Small Intestine

7

Bacteria process undigested chyme from the small intestine

Large Intestines

8

Only digestive structure with three muscle layers

Stomach

9

Receives blood via the hepatic portal system.

Liver

10

Contains the brush border enzymes that complete digestion of carbohydrates and proteins

Small Intestine

11

Main function is to filter and process the nutrient-rich blood delivered to it.

Liver

12

Produces Intrinsic factor

Stomach

13

Produces a mucoid barrier to prevent self digestion

Stomach

14

Increases output of enzymatic-rich pancreatic juice.

Cholecystokinin

15

Increases output of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate ions.

Secretin

16

Increases HCl secretion and stimulates contraction of intestinal muscle

Gastrin

17

Stimulates insulin release and mildly inhibits HCl production.

Gastric Inhibitory Peptide

18

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.

in the walls of the tract organs

19

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.

collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

20

The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.

digestion

21

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.

chemical digestion

22

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.

mesenteries

23

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

24

Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?

production of intrinsic factor (renin)

25

What part of the tooth bears the force of chewing?

enamel

26

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.

lamina propria

27

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?

cholecystokinin

28

Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.

Bile contains enzymes for digestion.

29

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?

plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli

30

Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.

There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.

31

Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?

There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.

32

Which of the following is NOT true of saliva?

contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of protiens

33

The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?

serous cells and mucous cells

34

The solutes contained in saliva include ________.

electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

35

In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.

initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

36

Chyme is created in the ________.

stomach

37

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?

parietal cells

38

Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?

enteroendocrine cells

39

There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.

before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

40

Peristaltic waves are ________.

waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

41

Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________.

protein and peptide fragments

42

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.

chief cells of the stomach

43

) You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?

amylase

44

The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the ________.

hepatopancreatic ampulla

45

The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________.

hydrolysis

46

Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?

lipase

47

Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.

hydrochloric acid

48

Hepatocytes do not ________.

cephalic

49

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?

B12

50

Chief cells ________.

produce pepsinogen

51

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.

catabolism

52

The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure

liver

53

If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.

serosa

54

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?

lipids

55

The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?

canine tooth

56

The lamina propria is composed of ________.

loose connective tissue

57

Which of the following is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion?

carbohydrates

58

The function of goblet cells is to ________.

produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

59

Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?

synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

60

Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.

the vagus nerve and enteric plexus

61

Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?

fungiform and circumvallate

62

Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?

parietal cells

63

Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?

trypsin

64

Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?

oral cavity

65

) A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.

bile

66

The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________.

submucosa

67

Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.

is longer than the small intestine

68

What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?

intrinsic factor

69

How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?

active transport

70

Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.

Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.

71

Paneth cells ________.

secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

72

Select the correct statement about digestive processes.

Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.

73

Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.

cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

74

Select the correct statement about absorption

If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.

75

Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption.

Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum.

76

The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?

Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.

77

A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates ________.

alkalosis

78

Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.

secretin

79

Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation?

inferior vena cava

80

Which of these is not a component of saliva?

a cyanide derivative

81

There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.

A

82

The longest portion of the small intestine is the ________.

Ileum

83

The principal enzyme for breaking down carbohydrates is ________.

amylase

84

Cells of the stomach that secrete HCl are ________ cells.

parietal

85

The chief bile pigment is ________.

bilirubin

86

Another word for vomiting is ________.

emesis

87

Cells are found in the sinusoids of the liver that remove debris from the blood as it flows past are called ________ macrophages.

stellate

88

The part of the peritoneum that covers the external surfaces of most digestive organs is the ________ peritoneum.

visceral

89

The ________ ligament anchors a tooth in the alveolus of the jaw.

peridontal

90

The ________ phase of gastric secretions occurs when food enters the stomach.

Gastric

91

The protective outermost layer of the esophagus is the ________.

adventitia

92

secret enzymes that kill bacteria

Paneth cells