Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube.
Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs into simpler units.
Enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule.
Process by which simpler chemical units pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph.
Produces enzymes that break down all categories of foodstuffs
Increases surface area for absorption via villi and microvilli
Bacteria process undigested chyme from the small intestine
Only digestive structure with three muscle layers
Receives blood via the hepatic portal system.
Contains the brush border enzymes that complete digestion of carbohydrates and proteins
Main function is to filter and process the nutrient-rich blood delivered to it.
Produces Intrinsic factor
Produces a mucoid barrier to prevent self digestion
Increases output of enzymatic-rich pancreatic juice.
Increases output of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate ions.
Increases HCl secretion and stimulates contraction of intestinal muscle
Stimulates insulin release and mildly inhibits HCl production.
Gastric Inhibitory Peptide
The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.
in the walls of the tract organs
The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.
collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage
The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.
When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?
production of intrinsic factor (renin)
What part of the tooth bears the force of chewing?
The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.
Bile contains enzymes for digestion.
The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli
Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.
There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.
Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?
There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.
Which of the following is NOT true of saliva?
contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of protiens
The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?
serous cells and mucous cells
The solutes contained in saliva include ________.
electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA
In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.
initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
Chyme is created in the ________.
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?
There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.
before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
Peristaltic waves are ________.
waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another
Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________.
protein and peptide fragments
Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.
chief cells of the stomach
) You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the ________.
The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________.
Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.
Hepatocytes do not ________.
Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
Chief cells ________.
Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.
The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure
If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.
Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?
The lamina propria is composed of ________.
loose connective tissue
Which of the following is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion?
The function of goblet cells is to ________.
produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?
synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins
Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.
the vagus nerve and enteric plexus
Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?
fungiform and circumvallate
Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?
Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?
) A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________.
Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.
is longer than the small intestine
What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?
How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?
Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.
Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.
Paneth cells ________.
secrete enzymes that kill bacteria
Select the correct statement about digestive processes.
Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.
Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.
cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction
Select the correct statement about absorption
If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.
Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption.
Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum.
The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.
A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates ________.
Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.
Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation?
inferior vena cava
Which of these is not a component of saliva?
a cyanide derivative
There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.
The longest portion of the small intestine is the ________.
The principal enzyme for breaking down carbohydrates is ________.
Cells of the stomach that secrete HCl are ________ cells.
The chief bile pigment is ________.
Another word for vomiting is ________.
Cells are found in the sinusoids of the liver that remove debris from the blood as it flows past are called ________ macrophages.
The part of the peritoneum that covers the external surfaces of most digestive organs is the ________ peritoneum.
The ________ ligament anchors a tooth in the alveolus of the jaw.
The ________ phase of gastric secretions occurs when food enters the stomach.
The protective outermost layer of the esophagus is the ________.
secret enzymes that kill bacteria