Chapter 9, 13, 14

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 6 years ago by Wcc2014
1,776 views
book cover
Microbiology
Chapter 9
updated 6 years ago by Wcc2014
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

What is the ultimate goal of recombinant DNA

to improve the organism

2

What cuts DNA at specific sequences

restriction enzyme

3

Why must the recipient plasmid be cut with the same restriction enzyme

to allow for a site in the plasmid for the donor DNA to attach

4

How do restriction enzymes cut DNA sequences

They cut DNA at sites called recognition sites that have specific nucleotide sequences

5

In general, how might recombinant DNA technology be used to prevent a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in a single gene

to insert a desirable gene, remove an undesirable gene, or replace a defective gene with a functioning gene

6

What attached the target gene to a desired location

DNA ligase

7

Why would a recombinant DNA molecule be inserted into a host cell

it can be copied, transcribed, and translated into a desired protein

8

restriction enzymes are

bacterial enzymes that destroy phage DNA

9

a population of cells carrying a desired plasmid is called a

clone

10

In recombinant DNA technology, a vector is a self-replicating segment of DNA, such as a plasmid or viral genome

True

11

A plasmid that is used to move pieces of DNA among organisms, such as bacterial, fungal and plant cells

shuttle vector

12

These are important for cloning applications because they can be used to cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences

restriction enzymes

13

rapidly increases the number of copies of a piece of DNA

PCR

14

sequencing DNA, making copies of a gene to put into another organism, identifying traits that may lead to a genetic disorder

These are all examples of

PCR

15

sequencing a gene, diagnosing a disease, and providing enough DNA for cloning into another organism.

these are all examples of

PCR

16

self-replicating DNA used to transmit a gene from one organism to another

vector

17

a segment of DNA

restriction fragment

18

what is the end goal of PCR

to quickly increase the number of copies of a specific DNA sequence

19

PCR stands for

polymerase chain reaction

20

sequencing a gene, diagnosing a disease, and providing enough DNA for cloning into another organism

PCR

21

How do restriction enzymes cut DNA sequences

at DNA sites, called recognition sites, that have specific nucleotide sequences

22

In general, how might recombinant DNA technology be used to prevent a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in a single gene

to insert a desirable gene, remove an undesirable gene, or replace a defective gene with a functioning gene

23

What attached a target gene to a desired location

DNA ligase

24

Why would a recombinant DNA molecule be inserted into a host cell

It can be copied, transcribed and translated into a desired protein

25

the reaction catalyzed by reverse transcriptase

mRNA----cDNA

26

not an agricultural product made by DNA techniques

pectinase

27

if you have inserted a gene in the Ti plasmid, the next step in genetic engineering is

inserting the Ti plasmid into Agrobacterium

28

use of microorganisms to make desired products, the use of animal cells to make vaccines, and the development of disease resistant crop plants

biotechnology

29

the restriction enzyme EcoRI recognizes sequence GAATTC. What is true of DNA after it is treated with EcoRI

all of the DNA fragments will have single stranded regions ending in G

30

which enzyme would cut this strand of DNA:
GCATGGATCCCAATGC

BamHI GGATCC
CCCTAGG

31

a population of cells carrying a desired plasmid is called a

clone

32

self replicating DNA used to transmit a gene from one organism to another

vector

33

the Human Genome Project, which was completed in 2003, was focused on

determining the nucleotide sequence of the entire human genome

34

place the following steps in the PCR procedure in the correct order.
1- incubate at 94 to denature DNA strands
2-incubate at 72 for DNA synthesis
3- incubate at 60 for primer hybridization

312
132
321
123
213

132

35

what is used to silence specific genes and hold promise for treating cancer or viral disease such as hepatitis b

RNA interference

36

what technique is not used to introduce recombinant DNA into plants

microinjection

37

a source of heat stable DNA polymerase

Thermus aquaticus

38

gene silencing blocks an undesirable product by

making a double stranded RNA

39

to determine where a person has a certain gene a process is involved using a primer and a heat stable DNA polymerase

PCR

40

the use of an antibiotic resistance gene on a plasmid used in genetic engineering makes

direct selection possible

41

the use of suicide genes in genetically modified organisms is designed to

prevent the growth of the modified organisms in the environment

42

a restriction fragment

a segment of DNA

43

what is not involved in making cDNA

translation

44

restriction enzymes are

bacterial enzymes that destroy phage DNA

45

the study of genetic material taken directly from the environment is

metagenomics

46

the term biotechnology refers exclusively to the use of genetically engineered organisms for the production of desired products

false

47

in recombinant DNA technology, a vector is a self replicating segment of DNA, such as a plasmid or viral genome

true

48

the practice of breeding plants and animals for desirable traits is called natural selection

false

49

a shuttle vector is a plasmid that is used to move pieces of DNA among organisms

true

50

nearly all cells naturally take up DNA from their surroundings without chemical treatment

false

51

one of the first commercial success of recombinant DNA technology was the production of human insulin using genetically engineered e coli

true

52

bioinformatics is the use of computer technology to compare and analyze genome sequence

true

53

the Bt toxin has been introduced into some crop plants to make them resistant to insect destruction

true

54

important for cloning applications because they can be used to cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences

restriction enzymes

55

unmatched recombinant DNA technique and application

gene silencing: production of subunit vaccines

56

why is bakers yeast useful for expressing genetically engineered genes

yeast cells are eukaryotic and so would likely be successful in expressing eukaryotic genes

57

false statement about recombinant DNA

has limited application because genes of interest cannot be moved from one type of cell to another.

58

true statement concerning viruses

the host range for a virus is determined by the presence or absence of particular components on the surface of a host cell that are required for the virus to attach

59

how does specialized transduction differ from lysogency

the prophase in specialized transduction carries with it pieces of the host chromosomal DNA

60

what happens to the packaged DNA of a specialized transduced phage when it infects a new recipient cell

the host DNA integrates, with the prophage, into the new recipient chromosome

61

how can a specialized transduction contribute to the transfer of antibiotic resistant genes in bacterial population

the prophage takes an antibiotic resistance gene with it and is packaged with the newly synthesized viral DNA

62

true statement concerning a lysogenic viral replication cycle

during lysogency, the viral genome integrates into the host DNA, becoming a physical part of the chromosome

63

how are virus different from cells

they require a host in order to reproduce

64

what is the function of the structural elements of a virus

to package and protect the viral genome

65

how do naked viruses differ from enveloped viruses in their attachment/penetration phase

their nucleic acids are injected into the cell

66

which virus employs the use of an RNA dependent RNA polymerase

+RNA viruses

67

which of the following viruses is transcribed from RNA to DNA to RNA during the replication cycle

retroviruses

68

which type of virus would produce viral glycoproteins to be expressed on the host cell membrane

enveloped viruses

69

what can be directly used a messenger RNA

+RNA

70

which step of viral replication are antibodies directly preventing

attachment

71

in which step does the virus acquire an envelop

release

72

what occurs during viral uncoating

the capsid breaks apart, releasing the viral genome

73

how do all viruses differ from bacteria

virus are not composed of cells

74

false statement about viruses

viruses use their own catabolic enzymes

75

viruses are the only know infectious agents that are obligatory intracellular parasites

false

76

what is not used as a criterion to classify viruses

biochemical tests

77

glycoprotein spikes are found on the capsids of all viruses

false

78

viruses that utilize reverse transcriptase belong to the virus families

hepadvaviridae and retroviridae

79

DNA made from an RNA template will be incorporated into the virus capsid of

hepadnaviridae

80

not utilized to culture viruses

culture media

81

bacteriophages and animal viruses do not differ significantly in this step

biosynthesis

82

phage DNA in incorporated into host cell DNA

lysogency

83

lysogency can result in all the following except

immunity to reinfection by any phage

84

the first step in the biosynthesis of a virus with a minus strand of RNA

synthesis of double stranded RNA from an RNA template

85

a viruss ability to infect an animal cell depends primarily upon the

presence of receptor sites on cell membrane

86

the mechanism whereby an enveloped virus leaves a host cell is called

budding

87

bacteriophages derive all the following from the host cell except

lysozyme

88

bacteriophage replication differs from animal virus replication because only bacteriophage replication involves

injection of naked nucleic acid into the host cell

89

generally in an infection caused by a DNA containing virus, the host animal cell supplies all of the following except

DNA polymerase

90

the third step in multiplication of herpesviruses

uncoating

91

the fourth step in multiplication of retroviruses

synthesis of double stranded DNA

92

the third step of a + strand RNA virus

synthesis of - strand of RNA

93

the most conclusive evident that viruses cause cancers is provided by

cancer following injection of cell free filtrates

94

oncogenic viruses

cause tumors to develop

95

what is necessary for replication of a prion

PrPsc

96

an infectious protein

prion

97

which virus is not associated with cancer

coronavirus

98

the study of structural and functional changes that occur in the body as a result of a disease

pathology

99

example of a symbiotic relation known as a mutualism

e coli within the large intestine

100

epidemiology is defined as the study of

where and when a disease occurs and how it is transmitted

101

role of epidemiology

to learn how to treat and prevent various diseases

102

a true statement about the development of infectious disease

the period of convalescence is the time during which the person regains health and fully recovers

103

one effect of washing regularly with antibacterial agents is the removal of normal microbiota. this can result in

increased susceptibility to disease

104

a commensal bacterium

may also be an opportunistic pathogen

105

a true statement about symbiotic relationship

a least one member must benefit

106

transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota in that transient microbiota

are present for a relatively short time

107

Kock observed Bacillus anthracis multiplying in the blood of cattle. what is this condition called

septicemia

108

a pattern of disease where the patient is not experiencing any signs or symptoms

incubation and convalescence

109

what disease is not spread by droplet infection

botulism

110

biological transmission differs from mechanical transmission in that biological transmission

involves specific diseases

111

an example of a fomite

hypodermic needle

112

a cold transmitted by a facial tissue is an example of which form of disease transmission

indirect contact transmission

113

a needlestick is an example of a

fomite

114

a nosocomial infection is

acquired during the course of hospitalization

115

pseudomonas bacterial colonized the bile duct of a patient following his liver transplant surgery. this is an example of

nosocomial infection

116

the science that deals with when disease occur and how they are transmitted is called

epidemiology

117

for a particular disease at a specific time period, morbidity rates should always be equal or greater than mortality rates

true

118

diseases that are referred to as EID have only been discovered in the past fifty years

false

119

compromised hosts are always suffering from suppressed immune systems

false

120

reservoirs of infections are always animate objects

false

121

both normal and transient flora can become opportunistic pathogens

true