Chapter 21 Flashcards
Intact skin and mucouse membranes ?
First line of defense
Second line of defense
Inflammatory response and skin and mucous membrane
innate defense system
third line of defense and adaptive defense system
Enables quick and efficient response to secondary exposure to antigen
Absence results in no immune response
Helper T cell
Forms antibody producing cells
Kills cancer cells and virus infected body cells
Cytotoxic T cell
Slows or stops the immune response
Regulatory T cell
Main antibody of both primary and secondary immune response.
Protects mucosal barriers.
Involved in allergies.
Along with IgM, this is a B cell receptor
First to peak during a primary immune response.
Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?
Composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains.
Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?
Passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
Which of the following is not a type of T cell?
B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the
Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?
replaced injured tissues with connective tissue
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to local hyperemia caused by
The antibody molecule is held together by -------- bonds.
In clonal selection of B cells which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?
Which of the following statements regarding Nk cells is a false or incorrect statement
Nk cells are a type of neutrophil
The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attached to an inflammatory site is called --------.
Small molecules that bind with self- proteins to produce antigenic substances are called -----------.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis?
Chemotaxi, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing
Which of the following is not a role of activated complement?
Prevention of immediate hypersensitivity reaction
Which of the following does not respond to cell- mediated immunity?
Pathogens in the lumen of the stomach
Which of the following cells predominate at the sites of chronic infections?
interfere with viral replication within cells
Which of the following determines what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist?
Regulatory T cells?
May function in preventing autoimmune reaction.
Select the correct definition about tissue grafts.
Isografts are between identical twins
Which of the following statements does not describe antigens?
Antigens only come from microbes
Activated T cells and microphages release -------- to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.
Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?
Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?
reactivity with an antibody
B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by
producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
T- cell activation requires?
Antigen binding and co- stimulation
Cancer cels and virus infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ---------.
Natural killer cells
Complete proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed --------.
Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?
It is specific for a given organ.
Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except ------?
Which of the following would be classified as delayed hypersensitivity reaction?
Allergic contact dermatitis
Innate immunity defense system includes?
Which of the following statements is incorrect or false?
Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen presenting cells, thymic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens.
Phagocyte mobilization involves
mainly neutrophil and macrophage migrate into flamed areas
production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting.
is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it.
Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.
Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies.
SElect the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on self.
Tolerance is developed during fetal life.
Cytotoxic T cells
are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells.
Helper T cells
function in the adaptive immune system activation.
Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency.
The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS) is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins.
Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities?
They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils.
Include allergic contact dermatitis.
Natural killer cells ( NK) cells
can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated
The primary immune response
has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cell.
SElect the correct statement about the function of antibodies.
compliment fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.
Which of the following cells is the most critical cell in immunity?
Helper T cells
Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?
type II diabetes
Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disorder?
A second exposure to an allergen
Antibody function include all of the following except
cross- linking cell- bonding antigens together so that they fall out of solution.
Which statement is true about T cells?
Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2.
Which of the following is not a method by which antibodies work?
direct cell lysis
What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?
Protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses
Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
After becoming immunocompetent the naive T cells and B cells are exposed to the bone marrow where the encounters with antigens occur. .
Which immunoglobulin class is attached to the external surface of B cells and acts as an antigen receptor of the B cell?