Chapter 2

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1

Particles associated with electromagnetic radiation that have no mass or electric charge are:

ions

negatrons

positrons

x-ray photons

x-ray photons

2

Coherent scattering is most likely to occur ____________, even though some of this unmodified scattering occurs throughout the diagnostic range and may result in small amounts of radiographic fog.

below 10 keV

between 30 keV and 60 keV

between 60 keV and 90 keV

above 100 keV

below 10 keV

3

Which of the following is not a type of interaction between x-radiation and biologic matter?

Compton scattering

Bremsstrahlung

Pair production

Photoelectric absorption

Bremsstrahlung

4

The symbol Z indicates the:

atomic number of an atom

atomic weight of an atom

fluorescent yield

number of vacancies in an atomic shell

atomic number of an atom

5

In photoelectric absorption to dislodge an inner-shell electron from its atomic orbit, the incoming x-ray photon must be able to transfer a quantity of energy:

less than the energy that binds the atom together

ten times as great as the energy that binds the atom together

as large as or larger than the amount of energy that binds the electron in its orbit

equal to or greater than 1.022 MeV, regardless of the energy that binds the electron in its orbit

as large as or larger than the amount of energy that binds the electron in its orbit

6

Which of the following interactions between photons and matter involves a matter-antimatter annihilation reaction?

Compton scattering

Coherent scattering

Pair production

Photoelectric absorption

Pair production

7

The probability of occurrence of photoelectric absorption _________ as the energy of the incident photon decreases and the atomic number of the irradiated atoms _________.

increases markedly, decreases

decreases markedly, increases

increases markedly, increases

stays the same, increases

increases markedly, increases

8

Which of the following terms refers to the radiation that occurs when an electron drops down from an outer orbit to fill a vacancy in an inner orbit of the parent atom?

Characteristic radiation

Bremsstrahlung

Photoelectric radiation

Primary radiation

Characteristic radiation

9

Fluorescent radiation is also known as:

characteristic radiation

coherent scattering

Compton scattering

unmodified scattering

characteristic radiation

10

What is the effective atomic number of compact bone?

5.9

7.4

7.6

13.8

13.8

11

Which of the following is not another term for coherent scattering?

Characteristic

Classical

Elastic

Unmodified

Characteristic

12

Which of the following are byproducts of photoelectric absorption?

Photoelectron and Compton scattered electron

Low-energy scattered x-ray photon and characteristic photon

Low-energy scattered x-ray photon and Compton scattered electron

Photoelectron and characteristic photon

Photoelectron and characteristic photon

13

Which two interactions between x-radiation and matter may result in the production of small-angle scatter?

Photoelectric absorption and Compton scattering

Coherent scattering and Compton scattering

Photoelectric absorption and pair production

Coherent scattering and pair production

Coherent scattering and Compton scattering

14

Which of the following particles is considered to be a form of antimatter?

Electron

Positron

X-ray photon

Scattered x-ray photon

Positron

15

Which of the following interactions results in the conversion of matter into energy?

Classical scattering

Photoelectric absorption

Modified scattering

Annihilation reaction

Annihilation reaction

16

Compton scattering is synonymous with:

coherent scattering

incoherent scattering

photoelectric absorption

photodisintegration

incoherent scattering

17

During the process of coherent scattering, the incident x-ray photon interacts with a(n):

single inner shell electron, ejecting it from its orbit

single outer shell electron, ejecting it from its orbit

atom transferring its energy by causing some or all of the electrons of the atom to vibrate momentarily and radiate energy in the form of electromagnetic waves

scattered photon of lesser energy, annihilating it

atom transferring its energy by causing some or all of the electrons of the atom to vibrate momentarily and radiate energy in the form of electromagnetic waves

18

What is the term for the number of x-rays emitted per inner-shell vacancy during the process of photoelectric absorption?

Characteristic absorption

Classical gain

Fluorescent yield

Modified pair production

Fluorescent yield

19

Which of the following results in all-directional scatter?

Classical interaction

Coherent interaction

Photoelectric interaction

Compton interaction

Compton interaction

20

Annihilation radiation is used in which of the following modalities?

Computed tomography (CT)

Digital mammography

Positron emission tomography (PET)

Computed radiography (CR)

Positron emission tomography (PET)

21

The x-ray photon energy required to initiate pair production is:

0.511 keV

1.022 keV

0.511 MeV

1.022 MeV

1.022 MeV

22

Differences in density level between radiographic images of adjacent structures as seen in a completed radiograph define:

image attenuation

radiographic contrast

radiographic density

photodisintegration

radiographic contrast

23

Radiographic density is:

caused by photodisintegration

defined as the degree of overall blackening on a completed radiograph

not affected by milliampere-seconds (mAs)

not relevant in the production of a diagnostic radiograph

defined as the degree of overall blackening on a completed radiograph

24

When a vacancy exists in an inner electron shell of an atom (as a result of photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, or bombardment by other electrons), the energy liberated when this vacancy is filled, instead of emerging from the atom as fluorescent radiation, can be transferred to another electron of the atom, thereby ejecting the electron. Such an emitted electron is called a(n) _____ electron.

Auger

Compton

Edison

Sievert

Auger

25

X-rays are carriers of:

disease

electrons

fluorescent properties that make them visible

manmade, electromagnetic energy

manmade, electromagnetic energy