Chapter 12

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1

The annual effective dose limit for individual members of the general population not occupationally exposed is ___________ for continuous or frequent exposures from artificial sources other than medical irradiation and natural background and ____________ for infrequent annual exposure.

1 mSv (0.1 rem), 5 mSv (0.5 rem)

3 mSv (0.3 rem), 7 mSv (0.7 rem)

5 mSv (0.5 rem), 9 mSv (0.9 rem)

50 mSv (5 rem), 25 mSv (2.5 rem)

1 mSv (0.1 rem), 5 mSv (0.5 rem)

2

Which part(s) of a diagnostic x-ray unit should a radiographer avoid touching while a radiographic exposure is in progress?

Control panel

Exposure switch

Kilovoltage control on the control panel

Tube housing, collimator, and high-tension cables

Tube housing, collimator, and high-tension cables

3

A spot film device protective curtain or sliding panel of a minimum thickness of 0.25-mm lead equivalent should normally be positioned between the fluoroscopist and the patient to intercept which of the following types of radiation?

Primary radiation

Scattered radiation above the tabletop

Exit or image formation radiation

Direct radiation

Scattered radiation above the tabletop

4

Which of the following adjustments in technical exposure factors decreases the production of scattered radiation?

Decrease kVp and increase mAs in compensation

Decrease kVp and decrease mAs

Increase kVp and decrease mAs in compensation

Increase kVp and increase mAs

Increase kVp and decrease mAs in compensation

5

Which of the following x-ray procedures increases the radiographer’s risk of exposure to ionizing radiation?
1. Mobile C-arm fluoroscopy
2. Interventional procedures that use high-level-control fluoroscopy
3. Mobile radiographic examinations

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

1, 2, and 3

1, 2, and 3

6

While standing behind the control-booth barrier, a radiographer makes a radiographic exposure. The x-rays scattered from the patient’s body should ________ behind the control-booth barrier.

not have enough energy remaining that will reach

scatter only once before reaching any area

scatter a minimum of two times before reaching any area

scatter a minimum of ten times before reaching any area

scatter a minimum of two times before reaching any area

7

When the time spent in a higher-radiation area is reduced or limited, occupational exposure:

is also reduced

is increased slightly

remains the same

is increased considerably

is also reduced

8

Which of the following is another term for use factor (U)?

Workload factor

Occupancy factor in controlled and uncontrolled areas

Beam direction factor

Protective barrier thickness consideration factor

Beam direction factor

9

In terms of occupational risk, radiography may be compared with the occupational risk associated with:

extremely hazardous industries

other industries considered reasonably safe, such as government or trade

a nuclear war

a radiation accident, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster

other industries considered reasonably safe, such as government or trade

10

______ is the radiation output weighted time that the unit is actually delivering radiation during the week.

Control designation

Occupancy

Use factor

Workload

Workload

11

Secondary radiation includes _____ radiation.
1. leakage
2. primary
3. scatter

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

1, 2, and 3

1 and 3 only

12

If the intensity of the x-ray beam is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source, how does the intensity of the x-ray beam change when the distance from the source of radiation and a measurement point is tripled?

It increases by a factor of 3 at the new distance.

It increases by a factor of 9 at the new distance.

It decreases by a factor of 9 at the new distance.

It decreases by a factor of 3 at the new distance.

It decreases by a factor of 9 at the new distance.

13

Whenever scattered radiation decreases, the radiographer’s exposure:

decreases

increases slightly

increases considerably

remains the same

decreases

14

During which of the following x-ray examinations should a radiographer always wear a thyroid shield?

Fluoroscopy and special procedures

Routine mobile radiographic procedures

General diagnostic radiographic procedures performed in an x-ray room

Digital radiography procedures and computed radiography procedures

Fluoroscopy and special procedures

15

What is the term for the proportional amount of time during which the x-ray beam is energized or directed toward a particular barrier?

Occupancy factor

Workload factor

Distance factor

Use factor

Use factor

16

Diagnostic imaging personnel receive the highest occupational exposure during which of the following procedures?
1. Fluoroscopy
2. Mobile radiography
3. Special procedures

1 only

2 only

3 only

1, 2, and 3

1, 2, and 3

17

To ensure that the lifetime risk of occupationally exposed persons remains acceptable, the lifetime effective dose in mSv should not exceed _____ occupationally exposed person’s age in years.

the

5 times

10 times

20 times

10 times

18

If the peak energy of the x-ray beam is 100 kVp, a protective lead apron must be the equivalent of which of the following measures?

0.25-mm thickness of lead

0.5-mm thickness of lead

1.0-mm thickness of lead

1.5-mm thickness of lead

0.25-mm thickness of lead

19

Protective eyeglasses with optically clear lenses should contain a minimal lead equivalent protection of _____ mm.

0.15

0.25

0.35

0.50

0.35

20

For C-arm devices with similar fields of view, the dose rate to personnel located within a meter of the patient is _______ fluoroscopy.

comparable to that of routine

far greater than the dose rate of routine

significantly less than the dose rate of routine

comparable to that of high-level-control

comparable to that of routine

21

When a radiologic technologist declares her pregnancy to her employer, which of the following is appropriate?

Her employer terminates her employment until after her child is born.

She is able to continue her employment but is not permitted to perform any radiologic procedures during the remainder of her pregnancy.

Her employer requires her to take a leave of absence until after the completion of the first trimester of the pregnancy and then return to her normal duties.

She continues to perform her duties without interruption of employment, provided that she has received radiation safety counseling and follows established radiation safety practices.

She continues to perform her duties without interruption of employment, provided that she has received radiation safety counseling and follows established radiation safety practices.

22

The maximum weekly permitted equivalent dose for a controlled area must not exceed _____ microsievert (_____ mrem).

1000; 100

100; 10

20; 2

2; 0.2

1000; 100

23

When doors to radiographic and fluoroscopic rooms are closed during radiation exposures, a substantial degree of protection is provided for persons in areas adjacent to the room door. This is because in most facilities room doors have attenuation for diagnostic energy x-ray equivalent to that provided by a _____ inch of lead.

1/2

1/4

1/16

1/32

1/32

24

Who should determine the exact shielding requirements for a particular imaging facility?

Administrator of the facility

Medical physicist

Radiologist

Radiographer

Medical physicist

25

Because occupational exposure of the radiographer can be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) through individual monitoring and other protective measures and the use of protective devices and because exposure from radiation-related jobs will not alter the ____________, radiation workers may receive a larger equivalent dose than members of the general population.

mean glandular dose

genetically significant dose

bone marrow dose

tissue tolerance dose

genetically significant dose