Chapter 21 Flashcards


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1

Blood flow through the cardiovascular system is affected by:

blood pressure, blood volume,
resistance and activity level.

2

Which of the following factors would most directly affect blood flow through the
circulatory system?
A. blood pressure
B. blood sugar
C. respiratory rate
D. outside temperature

A. Blood pressure

3

Materials can move across capillary walls by

Diffusion and osmosis.
Active transport and bulk transport.
(A&B only)

4

What things affect vascular resistance

length of the blood vessel (l), radius of the blood vessel (r), and the viscosity of the blood (η)

5

As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries, the

pressure increases

6

Which of the following has the greatest effect on blood flow

vessel length

7

Which of the following factors is most likely to result in an increase in blood pressure?

decreased blood flow to the kidneys

8

Blood flow to a tissue will increase if the?

arterioles dialate

9

Blood pressure is determined by measuring the

Force exerted by blood in a vessel against air in a closed cuff.

10

Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure.

Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase.

11

Which of the following is not one of the three main factors influencing blood pressure?
A) cardiac output
B) peripheral resistance
C) emotional state
D) blood volume

emotional state

12

The blood osmotic pressure is most affected by changes in the

concentration of plasma proteins

13

Which of the following statements is false concerning the movement of fluid between capillaries and interstitial space

The blood hydrostatic pressure and the blood osmotic pressure are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.1

14

Will result in increase blood flow to a tissue

increased vessel diameter, increased blood pressure, decreased peripheral resistance, relaxation of precapillary sphincters

15

Will lead to a increase in blood pressure

incr levels of ADH
incr levels of angiotensin II
incr alosterone
incr blood volume

16

Stimulation of the aortic baroreceptors result in increased activity by the ____ nervous system

parasympathetic

17

what happens to venous return during excersice

increases

18

What happens to cardiac output and stoke volume during increased excercise

both cardiac output and stroke volume increase

19

In response to hemmorage there is

mobilization of the venous reserve

20

Symptoms of shock include all of the following, except

profuse sweating

21

Homeostatic mechanisms can compensate for circulatory shock during the ___ stage.

compensated

22

Seperates the tunica media and the tunica externa

external elastic membrane

23

Diffusion occurs between blood and interstitial fluid in which of the following vessels?

capillaries

24

Which of the following layers of a vessel contains collagen fibers with scattered bands of elastic fibers?

tunica externa

25

Which vessel is known as a resistant vessel?

arteriolar

26

May result from the abdominal aorta being clamped too long during a surgical procedure.

loss of urinary function

27

can result from an aneurysm in the brain?

stroke

28

You are caring for five patients on the central nursing unit. Which of your five patients is at greatest risk for a myocardial infarction?

35-year-old white male who smokes 2 packs per day for 20 years

29

Arteriosclerosis can lead to

coronary atery disease
hypertension

30

Venoconstriction ________ the amount of blood within the venous system, which ________ the volume in the arterial system.

reduces; increases

31

Under normal cardiovascular circumstances, blood flow is ________ cardiac output.

equal to

32

Affect blood flow through the body

a) resistance
b) turbulence
c) blood viscosity
d) vessel diameter

33

You would expect to find fenestrated capillaries in

the pancreas

34

Factors that increase the risk of atherosclerosis include all of the following, except

A family history of low blood pressure.

35

What type of vessel would have a greater resistance

a vessel with a diameter less then 1 mm

36

How would increased sympathetic stimulation of a blood vessel affect the critical closing pressure of the vessel?

it would increase

37

Affect aortic regurgitation has on pulse pressure

increase

38

Which of the following would be most likely to have the highest pulse pressure?

an individual with aortic regurgitation

39

Edema would likely occur when

the heart is an insufficient pump

40

In which of the following would the rate of blood flow be greatest, assuming the same pressure?
A) a vessel 10 microns in diameter
B) a vessel 1 mm in diameter
C) a vessel 1 cm in diameter

A

41

Which of the following will cause a decrease in blood pressure?
A) increased levels of aldosterone
B) increased levels of angiotensin II
C) increased blood volume
D) increased levels of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)
E) increased levels of ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
Answer: D

D

42

The goal of cardiovascular of cardiovascular regulation is to ensure

that blood flow changes occur
A. at an appropriate time
B. in the right area
C. without drastically changing blood pressure and blood flow to vital organs

43

Continous capillaries

(i.e.muscle, fat, nervous tissue)
have no transcellular perforations
cells are joined by tight nonpermeable junctions.

44

Fenestrated capillaries are found in endocrine glands, intestinal villi and kidney glomeruli and are more permeable than continuous capillaries.

have intracellular perforations called fenestrae
found in endocrine glands, intestinal villi

45

Fenstrated capillaries are more

permeable than continous capillaries

46

The most common capillaries

Continuous

47

Arteries

carry oxygen rich blood back to the heart

48

Capillaries

connect arteries and veins
Their thin walls allow oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide and waste products to pass to and from the tissue cells.

49

Veins

take oxygen-poor blood back to the heart.

50

When renin is released from the juxtaglomerular cells angiotensinogen is converted into

angiotensin I

51

Capillaries that have a complete lining are called

continous

52

What structure do RBCs move through single file?

capillary

53

Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood will result in decreased

parasympathetic stimulation of the heart

54

return blood to the heart

veins

55

collect blood from capillaries

venules

56

smallest branches of arteries

arterioles

57

carry blood away from the heart

ateries

58

diffusion between blood and interstitial fluid takes places

capillaries

59

carries blood from the left ventricle to systemic circulation

aorta

60

carries blood from the right ventricle to the pulmonary circulation

pulmonary trunk

61

walls of arteries are __than the walls of veins

thicker

62

___ have small, round lumen; ___ have large, flat lumen

artery; veins

63

the lining of a _____ can contract

vein

64

arteries are ___ elastic than veins

more elastic

65

____ contain valves that prevent backflow of blood

veins