Blood flow through the cardiovascular system is affected by:
blood pressure, blood volume,
resistance and activity level.
Which of the following factors would most directly affect blood flow through the
A. blood pressure
B. blood sugar
C. respiratory rate
D. outside temperature
A. Blood pressure
Materials can move across capillary walls by
Diffusion and osmosis.
Active transport and bulk transport.
What things affect vascular resistance
length of the blood vessel (l), radius of the blood vessel (r), and the viscosity of the blood (η)
As blood travels from the aorta toward the capillaries, the
Which of the following has the greatest effect on blood flow
Which of the following factors is most likely to result in an increase in blood pressure?
decreased blood flow to the kidneys
Blood flow to a tissue will increase if the?
Blood pressure is determined by measuring the
Force exerted by blood in a vessel against air in a closed cuff.
Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure.
Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase.
Which of the following is not one of the three main factors influencing blood pressure?
A) cardiac output
B) peripheral resistance
C) emotional state
D) blood volume
The blood osmotic pressure is most affected by changes in the
concentration of plasma proteins
Which of the following statements is false concerning the movement of fluid between capillaries and interstitial space
The blood hydrostatic pressure and the blood osmotic pressure are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.1
Will result in increase blood flow to a tissue
increased vessel diameter, increased blood pressure, decreased peripheral resistance, relaxation of precapillary sphincters
Will lead to a increase in blood pressure
incr levels of ADH
incr levels of angiotensin II
incr blood volume
Stimulation of the aortic baroreceptors result in increased activity by the ____ nervous system
what happens to venous return during excersice
What happens to cardiac output and stoke volume during increased excercise
both cardiac output and stroke volume increase
In response to hemmorage there is
mobilization of the venous reserve
Symptoms of shock include all of the following, except
Homeostatic mechanisms can compensate for circulatory shock during the ___ stage.
Seperates the tunica media and the tunica externa
external elastic membrane
Diffusion occurs between blood and interstitial fluid in which of the following vessels?
Which of the following layers of a vessel contains collagen fibers with scattered bands of elastic fibers?
Which vessel is known as a resistant vessel?
May result from the abdominal aorta being clamped too long during a surgical procedure.
loss of urinary function
can result from an aneurysm in the brain?
You are caring for five patients on the central nursing unit. Which of your five patients is at greatest risk for a myocardial infarction?
35-year-old white male who smokes 2 packs per day for 20 years
Arteriosclerosis can lead to
coronary atery disease
Venoconstriction ________ the amount of blood within the venous system, which ________ the volume in the arterial system.
Under normal cardiovascular circumstances, blood flow is ________ cardiac output.
Affect blood flow through the body
c) blood viscosity
d) vessel diameter
You would expect to find fenestrated capillaries in
Factors that increase the risk of atherosclerosis include all of the following, except
A family history of low blood pressure.
What type of vessel would have a greater resistance
a vessel with a diameter less then 1 mm
How would increased sympathetic stimulation of a blood vessel affect the critical closing pressure of the vessel?
it would increase
Affect aortic regurgitation has on pulse pressure
Which of the following would be most likely to have the highest pulse pressure?
an individual with aortic regurgitation
Edema would likely occur when
the heart is an insufficient pump
In which of the following would the rate of blood flow be greatest, assuming the same pressure?
A) a vessel 10 microns in diameter
B) a vessel 1 mm in diameter
C) a vessel 1 cm in diameter
Which of the following will cause a decrease in blood pressure?
A) increased levels of aldosterone
B) increased levels of angiotensin II
C) increased blood volume
D) increased levels of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)
E) increased levels of ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
The goal of cardiovascular of cardiovascular regulation is to ensure
that blood flow changes occur
A. at an appropriate time
B. in the right area
C. without drastically changing blood pressure and blood flow to vital organs
(i.e.muscle, fat, nervous tissue)
have no transcellular perforations
cells are joined by tight nonpermeable junctions.
Fenestrated capillaries are found in endocrine glands, intestinal villi and kidney glomeruli and are more permeable than continuous capillaries.
have intracellular perforations called fenestrae
found in endocrine glands, intestinal villi
Fenstrated capillaries are more
permeable than continous capillaries
The most common capillaries
carry oxygen rich blood back to the heart
connect arteries and veins
Their thin walls allow oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide and waste products to pass to and from the tissue cells.
take oxygen-poor blood back to the heart.
When renin is released from the juxtaglomerular cells angiotensinogen is converted into
Capillaries that have a complete lining are called
What structure do RBCs move through single file?
Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood will result in decreased
parasympathetic stimulation of the heart
return blood to the heart
collect blood from capillaries
smallest branches of arteries
carry blood away from the heart
diffusion between blood and interstitial fluid takes places
carries blood from the left ventricle to systemic circulation
carries blood from the right ventricle to the pulmonary circulation
walls of arteries are __than the walls of veins
___ have small, round lumen; ___ have large, flat lumen
the lining of a _____ can contract
arteries are ___ elastic than veins
____ contain valves that prevent backflow of blood