Articulations and Body Movements

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created 7 years ago by winnieto89
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updated 7 years ago by winnieto89
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1

Cartilaginous

1. Typically allows a slight degree of movement
2. Includes joints between the vertebral bodies and pubic symphysis
3. Characterized by cartilage connecting the bony portions

2

Fibrous

1. Essentially immovable joints
2. Sutures are most remembered examples
3. Bone regions united by fibrous connective tissue

3

Synovial

1. Characterized by fibrous articular capsule lined with a synovial membrane surrounding joint cavity
2. Freely movable or diarthrotic
3. Hip, knee, elbow joints

4

Ligament

Dense connective tissue that connects bones together and stabilizes joints during movement

5

Tendon

Connective tissue that connects muscle to bone

6

Articular cartilage

Connective tissue that cushions the bone and allows a "gliding" motion

7

Synovial membrane

Soft connective tissue secretes fluid to lubricate joint and reduce friction

8

Bursa

Fibrous connective tissue that prevents friction within the joints

9

Joint between the axis and atlas

Pivot

10

Hip joint

Ball and socket

11

Intervertebral joints between articular processes

Condyloid

12

Joint between forearm bones and wrist

Condyloid

13

Elbow

Hinge

14

Interphalangeal joints

Hinge

15

Intercarpal joints

Gliding

16

Joint between talus and fibia/tibula

Hinge

17

Joint between skull and vertebral column

Condyloid

18

Joint between jaw and skull

Hinge

19

Joints between proximal phalanges and metacarpal bones

Condyloid

20

Multiaxial joint

Ball and socket

21

Biaxial joints

Condyloid and saddle

22

Uniaxial joints

Hinge and pivot

23

Name two important factors that contribute to the stability of the hip joint.

Deep socket to femur, and strongly enforced articular capsule

24

Name two important factors that contribute to the stability of the knee.

Menisci and ligaments and tendons crossing

25

Shoulder joint is built for mobility; list four factors that contribute to the range of motion at the shoulder.

1. Large head of humerus moves easily against shallow glenoid cavity of scapula

2. Ball and socket joint; most flexibility

3. Articular capsule thin and loose

4. Few ligaments stengthening joint

26

During muscle contraction

The insertion moves toward the origin

27

What structural joint changes are common to the elderly?

Joints degenerate. Adhesions may form where bones joint, and extraneous bone tissue can grow along joint edges

28

Define sprain.

Reinforcing ligaments are damaged due to excessive strain.

29

Define dislocation.

Bones forced out of their normal position in joint cavity.

30

What type of tissue damage might you expect to find in a dislocated joint?

1. Torn/stressed ligament and inflammation.
2. Joint capsule and ligaments remain stretched.