Chapter 7

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1

As a result of numerous reported patient injuries that have been associated with the use of _______________, better management of the use of such procedures is essential.

computed tomography

high-level fluoroscopy

routine chest radiography

routine fluoroscopy

high-level fluoroscopy

2

The correct order of development of the male germ cell from the stem cell phase to the mature cell is:

spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, sperm

spermatocyte, spermatogonia, spermatid, sperm

spermatid, spermatogonia, spermatocyte, sperm

sperm, spermatid, spermatogonia, spermatocyte

spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, sperm

3

Atrophy refers to:

aging of the skin from radiation exposure

shrinkage of organs and tissues after a high radiation dose is received

necrosis of the hypodermis from radiation exposure

wrinkling of the skin from radiation exposure

shrinkage of organs and tissues after a high radiation dose is received

4

_____ syndrome is not a form of acute radiation syndrome.

Carcinogenic

Hematopoietic

Gastrointestinal

Cerebrovascular

Carcinogenic

5

Which of the following are classified as early (acute) deterministic somatic effects of ionizing radiation?

Erythema, cataract formation, cancer

Nausea, epilation, intestinal disorders

Male and female sterility, embryologic defects, cancer

Blood disorders, fever, genetic effects

Nausea, epilation, intestinal disorders

6

Attempts have been made to measure chromosome aberrations after diagnostic x-ray imaging procedures:

and these studies have been very successful in measuring the number of chromosome aberrations that occurred

but successful results have not been achieved in these studies

but these studies have only been moderately successful in measuring the number of chromosome aberrations that occurred

but these studies have only been minimally successful in measuring the number of chromosome aberrations that occurred

but successful results have not been achieved in these studies

7

The hematopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome is also called the _____ syndrome.

Auger

bone marrow

cerebrovascular

mutational

bone marrow

8

Genetic mutations have been produced in experimental female animals when their ovaries were irradiated with doses as low as _____ Gy (_____ rad).

0.10; 10

0.15; 15

0.20; 20

0.25; 25

0.25; 25

9

A single absorbed dose of 2 Gy (200 rad) can cause a radiation-induced skin erythema within _____ hour(s) after irradiation.

1

6

12

24 to 48

24 to 48

10

A decrease in the number of neutrophils can be caused by a radiation dose of _____ Gy (_____ rad).

0.1; 10

0.2; 20

0.3; 30

0.5; 50

0.5; 50

11

The prodromal stage of acute radiation syndrome is also referred to as the:

initial stage

latent period

manifest illness period

recovery period

initial stage

12

For persons with hematopoietic syndrome, survival time shortens as the radiation dose:

decreases

increases

remains the same

there is no survival time for persons with the hematopoietic syndrome

increases

13

Grenz rays were once used to treat and cure:

acute radiation syndrome

cancer

lupus disease

skin diseases, such as ringworm

skin diseases, such as ringworm

14

The correct order of development for the female germ cell from the stem cell phase to the mature cell is:

ovum, mature follicle, corpus luteum, primordial follicle

corpus luteum, primordial follicle, mature follicle, ovum

primordial follicle, ovum, corpus luteum, mature follicle

primordial follicle, mature follicle, corpus luteum, ovum

primordial follicle, mature follicle, corpus luteum, ovum

15

Research has shown that repeated radiation injuries have a _____ effect.

cumulative

quadratic

sigmoidal

threshold

cumulative

16

In 1898, after suffering severe burns attributed to radiation exposure, which Boston dentist began investigating the hazards of radiation exposure and became the first known advocate of radiation protection?

Marie Curie

Clarence Madison Dally

Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen

William Herbert Rollins

William Herbert Rollins

17

Studies of radiation therapy patients who received orthovoltage radiation therapy treatments provide _____ evidence of skin damage caused by radiation exposure.

no

minimal

a moderate amount of

significant

significant

18

Which of the following is the reason why the ovaries should be shielded whenever possible during all imaging procedures?

Gonadal irradiation of the ovaries can result in somatic damage that can be passed on to future generations.

Gonadal irradiation of the ovaries can result in somatic damage but it cannot be passed on to future generations.

Gonadal irradiation of the ovaries can result in genetic mutations that can be passed on to future generations.

There is no valid reason why the ovaries should be shielded whenever possible during all imaging procedures.

Gonadal irradiation of the ovaries can result in genetic mutations that can be passed on to future generations.

19

Revised atomic bomb data for Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggest that radiation-induced leukemias and solid tumors occurring in the survivors may be attributed to exposure to which of the following?

X-rays

Gamma radiation

Neutrons

Various nonionizing radiations

Gamma radiation

20

The term LD 50/30 signifies the whole-body dose of radiation that can be lethal to ____% of the exposed population in _____ days.

50; 30

30; 50

50; 50

30; 30

50; 30

21

In the female the oogonia, the ovarian stem cells:

divide and reduce in number only during fetal development

multiply to millions of cells only during fetal development

are not present during fetal life

are present only in very small numbers during fetal life

multiply to millions of cells only during fetal development

22

During the major response stages of acute radiation syndrome after the initial stage, the period when symptoms that affect the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, and cerebrovascular systems become visible is called:

latent period

manifest illness

prodromal syndrome

recovery

manifest illness

23

Moist and dry desquamation can be caused by:

high radiation doses

low radiation doses

radiation doses received during routine diagnostic imaging procedures

radiation doses received during routine mammography

high radiation doses

24

Some local tissues suffer immediate consequences from high radiation doses. Examples of such tissues include:
1. bone marrow
2. male and female reproductive organs
3. skin

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

1, 2, and 3

1, 2, and 3

25

A term that is synonymous with epilation is:

alopecia

atrophy

desquamation

radiodermatitis

alopecia