Exam I Flashcards


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1

artery is to _____ as vein is to _____

efferent; afferent

2

excess fluid in the _______ causes cardiac tamponade

pericardial cavity

3

tetanic muscle contractions don't occur in a normal cardiac muscle because the _____ lasts until the muscle relaxes

refractory period

4

the adult heart is roughly the size of

a man's clenched fist

5

The term used to describe fluid collecting in the pericardial cavity that restricts the movement of the heart is known as

cardiac tamponade

6

The structure that permits blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium in the fetal circulation is the

foramen ovale

7

Blood leaves the right ventricle by passing through the

pulmonary valve

8

Intercalated discs serve to transfer ________ from cell to cell

the force of contraction
action potentials
electrical signals
ionic currents

9

Cardiac muscle cells and skeletal muscle cells differ in a few ways. Which of the following is not one of them

Cardiac muscle cells lack transverse tubules

10

When the semilunar valves close, the AV valves then

open

11

Which of the following are involved directly in pulmonary circulation?

right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and left atrium

12

The foramen ovale in the fetal heart is located in the ________

interatrial septum

13

The long plateau phase of the cardiac muscle action potential is due to

calcium channels remaining open

14

The normal pacemaker of the heart is located in

the sinoatrial node

15

As a result of the long refractory period in the cardiac action potential, cardiac muscle cannot
exhibit

tetany

16

The following are stuctural components of the conducting system of the heart.
1. Purkinje fibers
2. AV bundle
3. AV node
4. SA node
5. bundle branches

The sequence in which excitation would move through this system is:

4. SA node
3. AV node
2. AV bundle
5. bundle branches
1. Purkinje fibers

17

If there is a complete block between the SA node and the AV node, how would the ECG be
affected?

The rate of P waves will be faster than the rate of QRS complexes

18

The T wave on an ECG tracing represents

ventricular repolarization

19

Analysis of the electrocardiogram can reveal all of the following, except the

stroke volume

20

Put in correct order the sequence in which excitation would move through the conducting system
of the heart:
1. Purkinje fibers
2. AV bundle
3. AV node
4. SA node
5. bundle branches

4, 3, 2, 5, 1.

21

The first heart sound is heard when the

AV valves close.

22

The phase in the cardiac cycle when the mitral valve is closed and the aortic valve is open is the

systolic ejection phase

23

At a heart rate of 60 beats/minute, a cardiac cycle lasts

1 second

24

An increase in the rate of action potentials from baroreceptors will trigger a reflex to

both decrease heart rate and decrease pressure

25

The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle during a contraction is called the

stroke volume

26

"An increase in end-diastolic volume increases the stroke volume" is a way of stating

Starling's law of the heart

27

The heart is innervated by ________ nerves.

both parasympathetic and sympathetic

28

Stroke volume depends on

A) the contractility of the ventricle.
B) end diastolic volume.
C) venous return of blood to the heart.
D) the pressure required to pump blood into the aorta.

29

Cardiac output can be increased by all of the following except one. Choose the exception.

decreasing ejection fraction

30

Heart rate is controlled by neurons of the cardiovascular center located in the

medulla oblongata

31

The cardioacceleratory center activates sympathetic neurons and the cardioinhibitory center controls parasympathetic neurons. Are either or both of these statements true

Both parts of the statement are true and relate to brainstem control of heart rate.

32

Which of these is true about the atrial reflex?
A) also called Bainbridge reflex
B) triggered by atrial mechanoreceptors
C) depends on sympathetic innervation
D) triggered by increasing venous return
E) All of the answers are correct.

E

33

Which of these would cause stroke volume to increase?

when diastolic blood pressure is decreased

34

Drugs that block the beta-one adrenergic receptors will

decrease heart rate

35

If the force of ventricular contraction increases, what will happen to the end-systolic volume?

decrease

36

A patient has an end-diastolic volume of 125 ml. A heart attack has weakened her left ventricle so
it can pump a stroke volume of only 40 ml. Calculate her end-systolic volume.

85 ml

37

Calculate cardiac output if the heart rate is 125 beats/minute, the end-diastolic volume is 130 ml, and the end-systolic volume is 40 ml.

11,250 ml / min

38

Calculate the cardiac output of a patient with a heart rate of 100 beats/minute and a stroke volume of 75 ml.

7500 ml / min

39

The term ________ refers to blockage in the coronary circulation.

coronary artery disease

40

________ is the symptom generally brought on by coronary ischemia *Capitalize

Angina pectoris

41

In a procedure known as balloon ________, an inflatable balloon at the end of a catheter is used to press plaque back against the vessel wall

angioplasty

42

A procedure in which a length of the patient's vein or artery is used to create a detour around an obstruction in a coronary artery is called ________

CABG

43

A fine tubular wire mesh called a ________ may be inserted into a coronary vessel, holding it open.

stent

44

The ________ is a remnant of an important fetal blood vessel that once linked the pulmonary and systemic circuits

ligamentum arteriosum

45

The property of heart muscle to contract in the absence of neural or hormonal stimulation is called ________.

automaticity

46

A faster-than-normal heart rate is called ________.

tachycardia

47

The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle is called ________.

systole

48

The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle is called ________.

diastole

49

As the heart rate slows, ________ gets longer

diastole

50

________ are abnormal heart sounds caused by turbulent flow through faulty valves

murmurs

51

The backward flow of blood from a ventricle to its atrium or from a outflow vessel to its ventricle is called ________.

regurgitation

52

The ________ is the amount of blood in a ventricle after it has contracted and before it begins to refill.

end-systolic volume

53

The ________ is the volume of blood in a ventricle at the beginning of systole.

end-diastolic volume

54

The amount of blood remaining in the ventricle when the semilunar valve closes is the________.

end-systolic volume (ESV)

55

________ is when the heart canʹt maintain adequate cardiac output *capitalize

Heart failure

56

The cardiac ________ is the difference between the resting and maximal cardiac output.

reserve

57

The principle that increasing the end-diastolic volume results in a corresponding increase in the stroke volume is known as ________.

Starlingʹs law of the heart

58

The amount of blood returning to the heart is the ________.

venous return