Radiology Chapter 1

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1

Some consequences of ionization in human cells include:
1.  creation of unstable atoms
2.  production of free electrons
3.  creation of reactive free radicals capable of producing substances poisonous to the cell

- 1 only
- 2 only
- 3 only
- 1, 2, and 3

1, 2, and 3

2

When natural sources of ionizing radiation become increased because of accidental or deliberate human actions such as mining, they are referred to as _____ sources.

artificial

enhanced natural

extraterrestrial

manmade

Enhanced natural

3

Electromagnetic radiation can travel through space in the form of a wave but can interact with matter as a particle of energy. This dual nature is referred to as:

wave attenuation capability

wave-particle interchange ability

wave-particle duality

wave-particle phenomena

wave-particle duality

4

Which of the following statements concerning the 1979 nuclear reactor accident at TMI-2 is not true?

Excess cancer deaths have been predicted to occur in the 2 million people living within 50 miles of the plant at the time of the accident.

Excess cancer deaths have not been predicted to occur in the 2 million people living within 50 miles of the plant at the time of the accident.

The equivalent dose (EqD) received by 2 million people living in the vicinity of the nuclear reactor at the time of the accident was 0.02 mSv (2 mrem).

No melt-through of the reactor vessel occurred during the accident.

Excess cancer deaths have been predicted to occur in the 2 million people living within 50 miles of the plant at the time of the accident.

5

Which of the following is a special form of radiation that is capable of creating electrically charged particles by removing orbital electrons from the atom of the material with which it interacts?

Ionizing radiation

Nonionizing radiation

Subatomic radiation

Ultrasonic radiation

Ionizing Radiation

6

Patients who have an understanding of the medical benefits of an imaging procedure because they received factual information about the study before having the examination are more likely to:

assume a small risk of biologic damage but not overcome any radiation phobia they may have

cancel their scheduled procedure because they are not willing to assume a small risk of biologic damage

overcome any radiation phobia but not be willing to assume a small risk of possible biologic damage

overcome any radiation phobia and be willing to assume a small risk of possible biologic damage

overcome any radiation phobia and be willing to assume a small risk of possible biologic damage

7

Terrestrial radiation includes which of the following sources?

Long-lived radioactive elements, such as uranium-238, radium-226, and thorium-232 that are present in variable quantities in the crust of the earth

Radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests in which detonation occurred above ground

The sun and other stars

Video display terminals and television receivers

Long-lived radioactive elements, such as uranium-238, radium-226, and thorium-232 that are present in variable quantities in the crust of the earth

8

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), radon levels in homes should not exceed what level?

200 pCi/L

135 pCi/L

47 pCi/L

4 pCi/L

4 pCi/L

9

Cosmic radiation occurs in which two forms?

Solar and manmade

Artificial and galactic

Natural background and artificial

Solar and galactic

Solar and galactic

10

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) presently considers the risk of radiation exposure to the U.S. population from color television monitors to be:

substantial

moderate

very slight

negligible

negligible

11

Through which of the following routes can radon enter houses?
1.      Crawl spaces under living areas
2.      Floor drains and sump pumps
3.      Porous cement block foundations

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

1, 2, and 3

1, 2, and 3

12

Acute melting of the uranium dioxide fuel of a nuclear reactor core requires how great a temperature?

Less than 500° F

At least 1000° F

2000° F

Greater than 5000° F

Greater than 5000° F

13

When exposed to high radon levels in the home, which of the following groups of people have the highest risk of developing lung cancer?

Infants

Toddlers

Nonsmokers

Smokers

Smokers

14

As of 1987, of the estimated 0.65 mSv (65 rem) that manmade radiation contributed to the average annual radiation exposure of the U.S. population, what portion of this resulted from the use of consumer products?

0.01 mSv (1 mrem)

0.11 mSv (11 mrem)

0.21 mSv (21 mrem)

0.31 mSv (31 mrem)

0.11 mSv (11 mrem)

15

Which of the following helps shield the global population from exposure to essentially all high-energy, bombarding cosmic rays?

Clouds

Fog

Earth’s atmosphere and magnetic field

Smog

Earth’s atmosphere and magnetic field

16

Which of the following is considered by the EPA to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States?

Annual posteroanterior and lateral chest radiographs

Cosmic ray exposure

Radon exposure

Fluoroscopic examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract

Radon exposure

17

Which of the following are forms of electromagnetic radiation?
1.      Microwaves
2.      Visible light
3.      X-rays

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

1, 2, and 3

1, 2, and 3

18

The amount of energy transferred to electrons by ionizing radiation is the basis of the concept of:

electromagnetic radiation

nuclear power

radioactive decay

radiation dose

radiation dose

19

In the electromagnetic spectrum, higher frequencies are associated with _____ wavelengths and _____ energies.

longer; lower

longer; higher

shorter; lower

shorter; higher

shorter; higher

20

Both occupational and nonoccupational dose limits may be stated in units of:
1.      Coulomb per kilogram (roentgen)
2.      Gray (rads)
3.      Sievert (rem)

1 only

2 only

3 only

1, 2, and 3

3 only

21

A flight on a typical commercial airliner results in an equivalent dose rate of _____ mSv/hr (_____ mrem/hr).

0.001 to 0.005; 0.1 to 0.5

0.005 to 0.01; 0.5 to 1

0.02 to 0.04; 2 to 4

0.05 to 0.09; 5 to 9

0.005 to 0.01; 0.5 to 1

22

The first decay product of radium is:

cesium

radon

strontium

x-ray

radon

23

The millisievert (mSv) is equal to _____ of 1 sievert.

1/10

1/100

1/1000

1/10,000

1/1000

24

The advantages of the BERT method are:
1.      it does not imply radiation risk; it is simply a means for comparison
2.      it emphasizes that radiation is an innate part of our environment
3.      the answer given in terms of BERT is easy for the patient to comprehend

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

1, 2, and 3

1, 2, and 3

25

If a patient asks a radiographer a question about the potential risk of radiation exposure associated with a specific x-ray procedure, the radiographer should:

use his or her intelligence and knowledge to answer the question honestly and provide a suitable example that compares the amount of radiation received from the procedure in question with natural background radiation received over a given period of time

avoid the patient’s question by changing the subject

tell the patient that it is unethical to discuss such concerns

refuse to answer the question and recommend that he or she speak with the referring physician

use his or her intelligence and knowledge to answer the question honestly and provide a suitable example that compares the amount of radiation received from the procedure in question with natural background radiation received over a given period of time