Chapter 51 Quiz Flashcards


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1

Question 1
Animals that help other animals of the same species
a. are usually related to the other animals.
b. have defective genes controlling their behavior.
c. are bigger and stronger than the other animals.
d. are always male.
e. have excess energy reserves.

a.

2

Question 2
According to Hamilton's rule,
a. the effects of kin selection are larger than the effects of direct natural selection on individuals.
b. altruism is always reciprocal.
c. natural selection is more likely to favor altruistic behavior that benefits an offspring than altruistic behavior that benefits a sibling.
d. natural selection favors altruistic acts when the resulting benefit to the beneficiary, corrected for relatedness, exceeds the cost to the altruist.
e. natural selection does not favor altruistic behavior that causes the death of the altruist.

d.

3

Question 3
The mating system in which females are more ornamented than males is
a. polyandry.
b. monogamy.
c. polygyny.
d. promiscuity.
e. polygamy.

a.

4

Question 4
Some dogs love attention, and Frodo the beagle learns that if he barks, he gets attention. Which of the following might you use to describe this behavior?
a. The dog has been classically conditioned.
b. The dog is displaying an instinctive fixed action pattern.
c. The dog is trying to protect its territory.
d. The dog's behavior is a result of operant conditioning.
e. The dog is performing a social behavior.

d.

5

Question 5
Every morning at the same time, John went into the den to feed his new tropical fish. After a few weeks, he noticed that the fish swam to the top of the tank when he entered the room. This is an example of
a. imprinting.
b. operant conditioning.
c. maturation.
d. classical conditioning.
e. cognition.

d.

6

Question 6
A stickleback fish will attack a fish model as long as the model has red coloring. What animal behavior idea is manifested by this observation?
a. cognition
b. operant conditioning
c. imprinting
d. classical conditioning
e. sign stimulus

e.

7

Question 7
Listed below are several examples of types of animal behavior. Match the letter of the correct term (A-E) to each example in the following questions.

A. operant conditioning
B. agonistic behavior
C innate behavior
D. imprinting
E. altruistic behavior

Upon observing a golden eagle flying overhead, a sentry prairie dog gives a warning call to other foraging members of the prairie dog community.

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

e.

8

Question 8
Which of the following is true of innate behaviors?
a. They are limited to invertebrate animals.
b. They are expressed in most individuals in a population.
c. They occur with or without environmental stimuli.
d. They occur in invertebrates and some vertebrates but not mammals.
e. Their expression is only weakly influenced by genes.

b.

9

Question 9
Which of the following statements about evolution of behavior is correct?
a. An animal may show behavior that minimizes reproductive fitness.
b. Innate behaviors can never be altered by natural selection.
c. Natural selection will favor behavior that enhances survival and reproduction.
d. If a behavior is less than optimal, it will eventually become optimal through natural selection.
e. All of the statements are correct.

c.

10

Question 10
The central concept of sociobiology is that
a. most aspects of our social behavior have an evolutionary basis.
b. the behavior of an individual cannot be modified.
c. human behavior consists mainly of fixed action patterns.
d. human behavior is rigidly predetermined.
e. the social behavior of humans is homologous to the social behavior of other social animals.

a.

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Question 11
Although many chimpanzees live in environments containing oil palm nuts, members of only a few populations use stones to crack open the nuts. The likely explanation is that
a. members of different populations differ in manual dexterity.
b. members of different populations have different nutritional requirements.
c. the cultural tradition of using stones to crack nuts has arisen in only some populations.
d. members of different populations differ in learning ability.
e. the behavioral difference is caused by genetic differences between populations.

c.

12

Question 12
A chemical produced by an animal that serves as a communication to another animal of the same species is called
a. an agonistic promoter.
b. an inducer.
c. a pheromone.
d. an imprinter.
e. a sign stimulus.

c.

13

Question 13
Upon returning to its hive, a European honeybee communicates to other worker bees the location of a nearby food source it has discovered by
a. visual cues.
b. performing a round dance.
c. vibrating its wings at varying frequencies.
d. performing a waggle dance.
e. All options are correct.

b.

14

Question 14
Listed below are several examples of types of animal behavior. Match the letter of the correct term (A-E) to each example in the following questions.

A. operant conditioning
B. agonistic behavior
C innate behavior
D. imprinting
E. altruistic behavior

Through trial and error, a rat learns to run a maze without mistakes to receive a food reward.

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

a.

15

Question 15
A type of learning that can occur only during a brief period of early life and results in a behavior that is difficult to modify through later experiences is called
a. trial-and-error learning.
b. imprinting.
c. insight.
d. operant conditioning.
e. habituation.

b.

16

Question 16
Listed below are several examples of types of animal behavior. Match the letter of the correct term (A-E) to each example in the following questions.

A. operant conditioning
B. agonistic behavior
C innate behavior
D. imprinting
E. altruistic behavior

A human baby performs a sucking behavior perfectly when it is put in the presence of the nipple of its mother's breast.

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. E

c.

17

Question 17
Animal communication involves what type of sensory information?
a. olfactory
b. visual
c. tactile
d. auditory
e. visual, auditory, olfactory, and tactile

e.

18

Question 18
Circannual rhythms in birds are influenced by
a. periods of daylight and darkness.
b. magnetic fields.
c. reproductive readiness.
d. periods of food availability.
e. lunar cycles.

a.

19

Question 19
Which of the following best describes "game theory" as it applies to animal behavior?
a. An individual in a population changes a behavioral phenotype to gain a competitive advantage.
b. The total of all of the behavioral displays, both male and female, is related to courtship.
c. The evolutionary "game" is played between predator and prey, wherein the prey develops a behavior through natural selection that enables it to be less vulnerable to predation, and the predator counters with a new reciprocal predatory behavior.
d. The play behavior performed by juveniles allows them to perfect adult behaviors that are needed for survival, such as hunting, courtship, and so on.
e. The fitness of a particular behavior is influenced by other behavioral phenotypes in a population.

e.

20

Question 20
Feeding behavior with a high energy intake-to-expenditure ratio is called
a. heterotrophy.
b. herbivory.
c. search scavenging.
d. optimal foraging.
e. autotrophy.

d.