Campbell Biology: Plants Flashcards


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Campbell Biology
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1

The triploid food storage tissue of angiosperms is called the...
suspensor
endospem
ground meristem
proembryo
procambruim

Endosperm

2

Annual rings in a tree truck result from differences in...
-deposition of colored materials in the oldest cells
-the growth rate and water availability of secondary xylem at different seasons
-the amount of heartwood and sapwood
-the kind of cells, xylem or phloem, produced by the cambuim
-the proportion of wood cells and cork cells in xylem

the growth rate and water availability of secondary xylem at different seasons

3

Which division is not a seedless vascular plant?
-coniferophyta
-psilophyta
-pterophyta
-spenophyta
-lycophyta

conferiophyta

4

If you examined a cross section of woody stem under the microscope and located the vascular cambium, everything inside (towards the center of the stem) of the vascular cambium ring would be...
-xylem (primary and secondary)
-xylem ( only primary)
-phloem (primary and secondary)
-phloem (secondary only)
-xylem and phloem since vascular cambium is only one cell in thickness

xylem (primary and secondary)

5

Parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma are all cells of?
Meristem tissue
ground tissue
vascular cambium tissue
cork cambium tissue
epidermal tissue

ground tisue

6

Which of the following is not one of the seven major plant hormones?
auxin
nitrogen oxide
cytokinin
gibberellin
ethylene

Nitrogen oxide

7

Double fertilization in angiosperms is best described as?
-one sperm fertilizes the egg, which develops into the seed, and the other sperm fertilizes the ovary, which becomes the fruit
-one sperm fertilizes the egg, which develops into the seed, and the other sperm fertilizes the polar nuclei, which forms the endosperm
-one sperm fertilizes the egg, which develops into the seed, and the other sperm fertilizes the polar nuclei, which forms the seed coat
-one sperm fertilizes the egg, which develops into the seed, and the other sperm produces the pollen tube

one sperm fertilizes the egg, which develops into the seed, and the other sperm fertilizes the polar nuclei, which forms the endosperm

8

Well-developed vascular systems are absent in all of the following except..?
Hepatophyta
Brophyta
Chlorophyta
Charophytes
Pterophytes

Pterophytes

9

Which of the following types of plants are incapable of self-pollination?
dioecious
monoecious
complete
wind-pollinated
insect-pollinated

dioecious

10

The colorless root-like projections of mosses, liverworts, and hornworts, which anchor them to the substrate are called?
Rhizoids
tap root
fibrous roots
specialized roots
storage roots

rhizoids

11

The three most limiting essential elements are?
N,C,K
Mg,N,P
N,P,K
C,H,O

N,P,K

12

Pollen grains are formed in the anther of the flower. The correct sequence is
-Diploid microspore mother cells divide by meiosis to four haploid microscopes. Each microspore develops into a pollen grain by mitosis
-Haploid microspore mother cells divide by meiosis to four haploid microscopes. Each microspore develops into a pollen grain by mitosis
-Diploid microspore mother cells divide by mitosis to four haploid microscopes. Each microspore develops into a pollen grain by meiosis
-Haploid microspore mother cells divide by mitosis to four haploid microscopes. Each microspore develops into a pollen grain by meiosis

Diploid microspore mother cells divide by meiosis to four haploid microscopes. Each microspore develops into a pollen grain by mitosis

13

The gametophyte is green and nutritionally independent in
bryophytes
angiosperms
conifers
cycads

bryophytes

14

The structure of a mature, functional fruit always includes..
-one or more seeds
-extensive vascular connections to the parent plant
-fleshy cells rich in sugars
-brightly colored pigments to attract animal dispersers
-subtending bracts to protect against predators

one or more seeds

15

all of the following are a plant adaptation to life on land except?
tracheids and vessels
root hairs
cuticle
the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis
collenchyma

the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis

16

A plant developed a mineral deficiency after being treated with a fungicide. What is the most probable cause of the deficiency?
-Mineral receptor proteins in the plant membrane were not functioning.
-Mycorrhizal fungi were killed.
-Active transport of minerals was inhibited.
-The genes for the synthesis of transport proteins were destroyed.
-Proton pumps reversed the membrane potential.

Mycorrhizal fungi were killed

17

Somewhat elongated supporting cells with unevenly thickened cell walls, in strands beneath the epidermis, are
Collenchyma
Parenchyma
Sclerenchyma
Sieve Elements
Tracheary Elements

Collenchyma

18

Which of the following is the male gametophyte of a flowering plant/
ovule
microsporocyte
pollen grain
embryo sac
stamen

pollen grain

19

Most adult tracheophyte plants represent the?
A. epiphyte generation.
B. sporophyte generation.
C. spore generation.
D. gametophyte generation.
E. angiosperm generation.

Sporophyte generation

20

Which of the following does not represent a major innovation of plants as they moved to and evolved on land?
formation of a cuticle
development of stomata
protected spores and gametes
the use of chlorophyll a and b
roots, stems, and leaves

the use of chlorophyll a and b

21

The following sentence is correctly completed using which of the following choices? The globular stage of a plant embryo development give rise to...
heart-shaped embryo in the dicot
the suspensor of the germinating seed
a ball with a budge in conifers
rhizoids in Fucus
double fertilization in angiosperms

heart-shaped embryo in the dicot

22

Fern spores germinate into_____?
-gametophytes which are often heart-shaped and have rhizoids that anchor the fern to the substrate
-gametophytes which are often heart-shaped and have roots that anchor the fern to the substrate
-sporoophytes which are often heart-shaped and have rhizoids that anchor the fern to the substrate
-sporoophytes which are often heart-shaped and have roots that anchor the fern to the substrate

gametophytes which are often heart-shaped and have rhizoids that anchor the fern to the substrate

23

____is to xylem as _____ is to phloem
sclerenchyma cell; collenchyma cell
apical meristem; vascular cell
Vessel element; sieve-tube member
cortex; pith
vascular cambium; cork cambium

Vessel element; sieve-tube member

24

Which of the following is not one of the whorls of a complete flower
A. gynoecium containing carpels
B. androecium containing stamens
C. corolla containing petals
D. calyx containing the sepals
E. embryo containing zygotes

Embryo containing zygote

25

Which one of the following is not a part of the embryo sac (angiosperm female gametophyte)?
Generative cell
antipodals
polar nuclei
syngergids
egg

Generative cell

26

Which of these common "veggies" should technically be called a "fruit"

potato
carrot
lettuce
string bean
celery

string bean

27

Secondary xylem and phloem in tracheophyte seed plants allow for
A. increased girth later in their development.
B. increased root penetration in drier habitats.
C. increased leaf expansion and elongation.
D. increased production of flowers and fruits.
E. increased production of rhizoids at their root tips.

increased girth later in their development

28

Another name for a scale in a gymnosperm strobilus is
-an aleurone
-a hypocotyl
-a sporophyll
-a scutellum
-an amyloplast

sporophyll

29

Plants that flower year after year are called?
annuals
biennials
perennials
monocots
dicots

perennials

30

The steps involved in the fertilization of angiosperm flowers include all of the following except
A. pollen is transported to a stigma of a flower.
B. when pollen reaches the stigma of a flower, it begins to grow a pollen tube that pierces the style.
C. the style of the pistil contracts to bring the sperm closer to the embryo sac.
D. the pollen tube grows until it reaches the ovule in the ovary.
E. double fertilization produces an embryo and the endosperm.

the style of the pistil contracts to bring the sperm closer to the embryo sac.

31

A water molecule could move all the way through a plant from soil to root to leaf to air and pass through a living cell only once. This living cell would be a part of which structure?
A) the Casparian strip
B) a guard cell
C) the root epidermis
D) the endodermis
E) the root cortex

endodermis

32

A perfect flower is fertile, but may be either complete or incomplete. Which of the following correctly describes a perfect flower?
A) It has no sepals.
B) It has fused carpels.
C) It is on a dioecious plant.
D) It has no endosperm.
E) It has both stamens and carpels.

has both stamens and carpels

33

A birdhouse is nailed into a tree 6 feet up from the ground. If the tree grows about 2 feet taller each year, where will the birdhouse be 25 years later?
A. 50 feet
B. 56 feet
C. 26 feet
D. 6 feet
E. 4 feet

6 feet

34

Which gaseous hormone stimulates the ripening of fruit?
abscisic acid
gibberellin
auxin
ethylene
cytokinin

ethylene

35

Which of the following combinations of plant nutrients make up about 94% of a plant's dry weight?
a. nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
b. carbon, iron, and phosphorus
c. calcium, chlorine, and manganese
d. zinc, oxygen, and boron
e. carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen

carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen

36

Most carbohydrates manufactured in leaves and other green parts are distributed through the phloem to the rest
A-transpiration
B-translocation
C-osmosis
D-receptor mediated transport
E-turgor pressure

translocation

37

Angiosperms are primarily characterized by all of the following except...
A-ovules are enclosed within other tissues at the time of pollination
B-a seed develops within a carpel
C-the ovary matures into the fruit
D-free water is required for pollination
E-bear flowers which are modified stems bearing modified leaves

free water is required for pollination

38

the name of the meristematic tissue that gives rise to future vascular tissue is?
Procambruim
cork cambium
ground meristem
dermal tissue
protoderm

Procambruim

39

The seed leaves that are produced by embryonic cells and are formed from bulges on the embryo are called?
radicles
embryo sacs
petioles
cotyledons
ovules

cotyledons

40

At the Farmers' Market, which of these fruits would you select as examples of drupes?
oranges and lemons
peaches and plums
strawberries and blackberries
blueberries and tomatoes
grapes and peppers

peaches and plums

41

Evolutionarily, floral parts are modified
stems
leaves
roots
stolons
buds

leaves

42

PLants contain meristems whose major function is to
Attract pollinators
absorb ions
photosynthesize
produce more cells
produce flowers

produce more cells

43

Microspore mother cells produce microspores that develop into
egg cells
pollen grains
synergids
endosperm
megaspores

pollen grains

44

A lateral root is initiated from the
cork cambium
pith ray
procambium
pericycle
cortex

pericycle

45

Which cells are characterized by thin cell walls, the largest vacuoles, and the least specialization?
epidermis
collenchyma
sclerenchyma
parenchyma
meristem

Parenchyma

46

Linen is woven from strands of sclerenchyma____ that occur in the phloem of flax
tracheid
sieve
sclerid
sollenchyma
fiber

fiber

47

Gas exchange, which is necessary for photosynthesis, can only occur most easily in which leaf tissure?
epidermis
palisade mesophyll
spongy mesophyll
vascular tissue
bundle sheath

spongy mesophyll

48

What is the main force by which most of the water within xylem vessels move toward the top of a tree?
A) active transport of ions into the stele
B) atmospheric pressure on roots
C) evaporation of water through stoma
D) the force of root pressure
E) osmosis in the root

evaporation of water through stoma

49

ON a short-term basis, water loss in plants may be controlled by the?
A. bending of the petioles on the leaves.
B. closing of the stele in the roots.
C. closing of the stomates in the leaves
D. opening of the stomates in the leaves to allow more carbon dioxide to enter.
E. opening the casparian strips in the roots.

closing of the stomates in the leaves

50

All of the following normally enter the plant through the roots except
Carbon dioxide
nitrogen
potassium
water
calcium

Caron dioxide

51

Which naturally-occurring plant hormone has a major roles in the phototrophic response of plants?
auxin
gibberellin
asbscisic acid
ethylene
2, 4-D

Auxin