What is an electrolyte?
ions that are released when inorganic compounds dissociate and that conduct an electrical current in solution.
Which is the most abundant cation in the ICF?
Which is the most abundant cation in the ECF?
Which of the following hormones causes the conservation of sodium in the kidneys?
What represents the largest volume of water lost each day under normal physiological conditions?
When water losses outpace water gains, ___________ occurs.
What is the term for an abnormally high concentration of sodium in the ECF?
What is the term for an abnormally low concentration of potassium in the ICF?
An abnormally high level of what electrolyte could be caused by hyperparathyroidism and would result in kidney stones, confusion, muscle pain, and cardiac arrhythmias?
What is the term for a substance that opposes a change in pH in a solution and can either remove or replace hydrogen ions?
Which of the following is a volatile acid and is produced from the combination of carbon dioxide and water?
What is the normal pH of ECF?
Hypercapnia, or an elevation of carbon dioxide in the blood, is a sign of __________.
Hyperventilation causes __________.
Prolonged vomiting and loss of stomach acid cause __________.
What might be a response to respiratory acidosis?
increased respiratory rate
Order of composition in the body
Proteins, lipids, Minerals, Carbohydrates, Misc
What is the pressure exerted by the blood against the walls of arteriole blood vessels called?
Where is the juxtoglomerullar apparatus found?
in the Bowman's Capsule
When angiotensin 2 causes vasoconstriction what does it do?
increase blood pressure
What is continuously low GFR an indication of?
Which hormone is initially released in response to a low GFR?
What is the total concentration of all solute particles in a solution,measured as moles of solute per liter of water?
What is a measure of the particles in a given volume of solute that predicts whether osmosis will occur?
Match the following symptoms with the corresponding disorder: alkalosis, anorexia.
If the ECF is hypertonic with respect to the ICF, water will move __________.
from the cells into the ECF until osmotic equilibrium is restored
What is the most abundant cation in the ICF?
What are the two important effects of increased release of ADH?
reduction of urinary water losses and stimulation of the thirst center
Match the following symptoms with the corresponding disorder: muscle weakness, cramps.
What does Atrial natriuretic peptide do?
blocks ADH release, reduces thirst, and blocks aldosterone release.
What are the principal ions in the extracellular fluid (ECF)?
sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate
What hormones play(s) a role in mediating fluid and electrolyte balance?
Atrial natriuretic peptide, aldosterone, ADH, and parathormone