Human Anatomy & Physiology: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance Flashcards


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Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
updated 8 years ago by fudgey65
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fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, education, teaching methods & materials, science & technology, medical, anatomy, physiology
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1

What is an electrolyte?

ions that are released when inorganic compounds dissociate and that conduct an electrical current in solution.

2

Which is the most abundant cation in the ICF?

potassium

3

Which is the most abundant cation in the ECF?

sodium

4

Which of the following hormones causes the conservation of sodium in the kidneys?

aldosterone

5

What represents the largest volume of water lost each day under normal physiological conditions?

urine

6

When water losses outpace water gains, ___________ occurs.

dehydration

7

What is the term for an abnormally high concentration of sodium in the ECF?

hypernatremia

8

What is the term for an abnormally low concentration of potassium in the ICF?

hypokalemia

9

An abnormally high level of what electrolyte could be caused by hyperparathyroidism and would result in kidney stones, confusion, muscle pain, and cardiac arrhythmias?

Calcium

10

What is the term for a substance that opposes a change in pH in a solution and can either remove or replace hydrogen ions?

buffer

11

Which of the following is a volatile acid and is produced from the combination of carbon dioxide and water?

carbonic acid

12

What is the normal pH of ECF?

7.35–7.45

13

Hypercapnia, or an elevation of carbon dioxide in the blood, is a sign of __________.

respiratory acidosis

14

Hyperventilation causes __________.

respiratory alkalosis

15

Prolonged vomiting and loss of stomach acid cause __________.

metabolic alkalosis

16

What might be a response to respiratory acidosis?

increased respiratory rate

17

Order of composition in the body

Proteins, lipids, Minerals, Carbohydrates, Misc

18

What is the pressure exerted by the blood against the walls of arteriole blood vessels called?

blood pressure.

19

Where is the juxtoglomerullar apparatus found?

in the Bowman's Capsule

20

When angiotensin 2 causes vasoconstriction what does it do?

increase blood pressure

21

What is continuously low GFR an indication of?

kidney damage

22

Which hormone is initially released in response to a low GFR?

renin

23

What is the total concentration of all solute particles in a solution,measured as moles of solute per liter of water?

osmolarity

24

What is a measure of the particles in a given volume of solute that predicts whether osmosis will occur?

osmolality

25

Match the following symptoms with the corresponding disorder: alkalosis, anorexia.

Hypochloremia

26

If the ECF is hypertonic with respect to the ICF, water will move __________.

from the cells into the ECF until osmotic equilibrium is restored

27

What is the most abundant cation in the ICF?

potassium

28

What are the two important effects of increased release of ADH?

reduction of urinary water losses and stimulation of the thirst center

29

Match the following symptoms with the corresponding disorder: muscle weakness, cramps.

Hypomagnesemia

30

What does Atrial natriuretic peptide do?

blocks ADH release, reduces thirst, and blocks aldosterone release.

31

What are the principal ions in the extracellular fluid (ECF)?

sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate

32

What hormones play(s) a role in mediating fluid and electrolyte balance?

Atrial natriuretic peptide, aldosterone, ADH, and parathormone