Human Anatomy & Physiology: Urinary System Flashcards


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Urinary System
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1

Fibrous connective tissue that surrounds each kidney is the

renal capsule

2

The apex of the renal pyramid is called the

The apex of the renal pyramid is called the

3

The major calyces of the kidney converge to form an enlarged channel called the

renal pelvis

4

The basic histological and functional unit of the kidney is the

Nephron

5

Order as fluid flows from the filtration membrane through the nephron

1,5,3,4,2
Renal Corpuscle, proximal tube, loop of Heinle, distal tube, collecting duct

6

The tuft of capillaries in the renal corpuscle is called the

glomerulus

7

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is formed where the __________ projects between the afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole next to Bowman's capsule.

Distal tube

8

Collectively, the capillary epithelium, basement membrane, and podocytes form the

filtration membrane

9

The part of a nephron between Bowman's capsule and the loop of Henle is the

proximal tube

10

The __________ are specialized portions of the peritubular capillaries that extend deep into the medulla of the kidney.

vasa recta

11

order in which a drop of blood from the interlobular artery passes through

afferent arteriole , efferent arteriole, pertibular capillaries, interlobal vein, arcuate vein

12

The triangular area of the urinary bladder between the two ureters posteriorly and the urethra anteriorly is the

trigone

13

Skeletal muscle that surrounds the urethra as it extends through the pelvic floor is the

external urinary sphincter

14

Active transport of substances from the blood into the nephron is called

tubular secretion

15

The movement of substances from the filtrate back into the blood of the peritubular capillaries is called

tubular reabsorption

16

The part of the total cardiac output that passes through the kidneys is called the

renal fraction

17

The part of the plasma volume that passes through the filtration membrane is the

filtration fraction

18

Which of these substances normally cannot pass through the filtration membrane?

hemaglobin

19

Of the filtrate that enters the nephron, about what percent is reabsorbed during urine formation?

99%

20

A decrease in plasma proteins results in

decreased colloid osmotic pressure

21

As filtrate moves through the thin segment of the descending limb of the loop of Henle, water moves __________ the nephron, and solutes move __________ the nephron.

out of, into

22

During tubular reabsorption in the proximal tubule of the nephron, most solutes are moved across the apical membrane by __________ , and across the basal membrane by __________ .

cotransport, facilitated diffusion

23

The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is __________ to water.

impermeable

24

The percentage of filtrate volume reabsorbed in the proximal tubule is

65%

25

The permeability of the distal tubule and the collecting duct is controlled by

ADH

26

At which of these locations is the osmolality of the filtrate the highest?

bottom of the loop of Henle

27

Renal tubules are __________ permeable to urea than they are to water, therefore urea concentration in the tubules __________ .

less, increases

28

Urea diffuses out of the __________ , and into the __________ .

collecting duct, descending limb of the loop of Henle

29

Juxtaglomerular cells secrete

Renin

30

Drinking a large amount of beer results in

decreased urine osmolality, and increased urine volume

31

Angiotensin II causes

Increased ADH secretion, increased thirst, increased salt appetite, and increased peripheral resistance.

32

When the tubular load of a substance exceeds the tubular maximum, that substance will

appear in the urine.

33

After urine is produced in the kidney, it leaves the kidney via the:

Ureters

34

The structural and functional unit of the kidney is the __________.

Nephron

35

Which vessel delivers blood directly to the glomerular capillaries?

Afferent arterioles

36

Fluid (filtrate) that has moved through the proximal tubule then moves into what part of the nephron?

Descending limb of the loop of Henle

37

The descending limb of the loop of Henle is highly permeable to __________, but not to __________.

water; solutes

38

n the juxtaglomerular apparatus, what cells monitor and respond to changes in the osmolarity (or electrolyte concentration) of the filtrate in the tubules

Macula densa cells

39

The proximal tubule cells are highly permeable to __________.

water AND solutes

40

The late distal tubule and cortical collecting duct contain two functional types of cells. Which cells change their permeability in response to hormones?

Principal cells

41

The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle is highly permeable to ____________, but not to ____________.

solutes; water

42

The renal corpuscle consists of two parts, the glomerular capillaries and __________.

Bowman's capsule