Microbiology Study Guide Test 1

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Elauria's Microbiology 260 Class
updated 7 years ago by tracy537
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1

Spontaneous Generation

Living things came from non-living entities (rats from old clothes, worms from rotten meat)

2

Germ Theory

Stated that living things came from other living things and that germs (animalcules) can invide other organisms and produce disease.

3

Leewenhoek

Invented the microscope (300x magnification)

4

Animalcules

Name Leewenhoek gave the microbes he discovered under his microscope

5

Pasteur

Developed pasteurization for beer and wine

Developed first effective vaccine against rabies

6

Koch

Demonstrated that anthrax in humans/cattle is due to Bacillus anthracis

First to isolate bacteria in pure culture

Developed artificial nutrient medium containing agar

Koch's Postulates-steps necessary to prove that an organism is the true cause of a disease

7

Semmelweiss

First to implement sanitary practices in maternity wards to avoid puerperal fever

8

Lister

Developed procedures for surgical antisepsis by using carbolic acid to disinfect

9

Ehrlick

Initiated search for "magic bullets" or chemicals that target pathogens but spare host tissues. Father of Chemotheraphy

10

Flemming

Discovered penicillin (first antibiotic)

11

Major Groups of Microbes

Bacteria, Protists, Algae, Protozoa, Fungi

12

Bacteria

Unicellular prokaryotes, divide by binary fission,

Can be photo or non-photo synthetic, motile, non-motile (naturally aerobic but can switch to anaerobic mode when oxygen is absent)

Shapes: Coccus, bacillus, spirillum, star, square, filamentous, pleomorphic

13

Protists

Mostly unicellular eukaryotes

14

Algae

plant like protest that are usually aquatic and photosynthetic.

15

Protozoa

animal-like protists, mostly capable of movement (amoeba)

16

Fungi

mostly multi-cellular eukaryotes with filamentous bodies, usually spore-bearing, generally non-motile, non-photosynthetic although may look like plants in appearance

yeasts = unicellular

molds = multicellular mushrooms

17

Viruses

Submicroscopic, acellular entities composed of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA, but not both) with a protein coat, and always obligate parasites.

18

Other Microbes

Helminths, Arthropods

19

Importance of Microbes to Man and Ecosystem

Serve as agents of human, plant and animal diseases

Microbes are decomposers and cleaners of the environment

Microbes form a symbiotic relationship with other organisms and are crucial to the survival of those micro-organisms

20

Importance of Microbes

Consumed as food by other organisms

Used in production of food and beverages

Sources of antibiotics and other pharmaceutical products

Excellent tools for research

21

Bubonic Plague

Killed 25 million Europeans

Yersinia pestis

Lasted 300 years

22

Typhus

caused by bacterium rickettsia species

23

smallpox

caused worldwide death and migration of people

24

Influenza

more soldiers died from this than warfare.

25

Cholera

vibrio cholera--one of the main causes of death in the 3rd world due to polluted water

26

AIDS

One of the most cruel microbial diseases

27

SARS

(corona virus) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome,
affected china in 2003-2004

28

Mad Cow Disease

Infectious Disease = prions

29

What microbe is penicillin made from?

Fungus

30

What microbe is streptomycin made from?

Bacteria

31

What microbe is Botox made from?

bacterium

32

Why are microbes excellent tools for research?

The have simple structures that are easy to study

Fast growth rate gets results in a short period of time

They can be mass produced at a reasonable cost

33

What is the name for the branch of microbiology studying bacteria?

Bacteriology

34

What is the name for the branch of microbiology studying fungi?

Mycology

35

What is the name for the branch of microbiology studying algae?

Phycology

36

What is the name for the branch of microbiology studying parasites?

parasitology

37

What is the name for the branch of microbiology studying viruses?

virology

38

What is the name of the branch of biology studying protists?

Protozoology

39

Do prokaryotes have a nucleus?

No

40

How many cells do prokaryotes have?

One. They are single-celled

41

What is the cell wall of a prokaryote made of?

Peptidoglycan

42

Cell size of a prokaryote: small or large?

Small (0.3-10um)

43

Do prokaryotes have mitochondria?

No

44

Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals are examples of _______.

Eukaryotes

45

Do eukaryotes have a nucleus?

Yes

46

What is the cellular structure of a Eukaryote?

Mostly multicellular except protists and yeasts

47

What is the general cell size of a Eukaryote?

Large (1-100um)

48

What is the cell wall made of in a Eukaryote?

Cellulose, chitin (none in animals)

49

What is the function of a cell membrane in a prokaryotic cell?

Double layer of phospholipid, making it semi-permeable

Proteins aid in transport

Lipids maintain the fluidity of membranes

50

What are the two unique functions of prokaryotic cells?

Site of DNA attachment during replication

Site of Respiration (ATP production)

51

Endospores contain many layers of which two substances?

calcium and dipicolonic acid

52

Endospores are considered to be survival rather than reproductive structure because ____________.

They can withstand adverse environmental conditions.

53

Endospores are formed by only some bacteria of the genus _________ and _____________.

Bacillus and Clostridium

54

Cell walls with a gram positive reaction will have a thick ______________ layer.

Peptidoglycan layer

55

Cell walls with a thin peptidoglycan layer will be be Gram ______________.

negative

56

Acid-fast cell walls will have both a peptidoglycan layer, as well as a thick layer of lipid. True or False?

True

57

Members of the Kingdom Prokaryotae (Monera) are _______________ and ______________.

Archaea and Bacteria

58

Prokarayotes without peptidoglycan in their cell walls, surviving in extreme environmental conditions and not inhibited by antibiotics are _____________.

Archaea

59

Archaea that are strict anaeorobes, decompose in sewer systems and produce methane gas are _________.

Methanogens

60

Archaea that thrive in high salt environments. Some are photosynthetic with purple pigment.

Extreme Halophiles

61

Archaea that survive in very hot environments (60-80 degrees C) such as volcanic vents, mud springs, hot springs. Some can produce sulfuric acid.

Extreme Thermophiles

62

Prokaryotes with typical peptidoglycan in their cell walls, survive in ordinary environments, mostly inhibited by antibiotics.

Bacteria

63

Type of bacteria without cell walls, fastidious and hard to grow in artificial medium.

Mycoplasmas

64

Obligate parasites, can't grow on artificial medium, thought to be viruses.

Chlamydia, and Rickettsiae

65

Only true bacteria without peptidoglycan

Chlamydia

66

Mostly unicellular eukaryotes, "Dumpsite" for organisms that cannot be classified as plants, animal, or fungi. Subdivided into "phylum" based on mode of locomotion.

Kingdom Protista

67

An "animal-like" protist

Protozoa

68

Move by pseudopodia (false feet), which are actually cytoplasmic extensions

Sarcodina (Amoeba)

69

Motile by one or more flagella, some are free-living but others are pathogenic

Mastigophora

70

Animal-like protist. Non-motile, parasitic protozoa with complex life cycle involving a biological vector or carrier.

Sporozoans

71

Animal-like protist. Move by cilia over the cell, largest group of protozoa that are involved in cleaning the environment

Ciliates (Paramecium)

72

Plant like protists capable of photosynthesis

Algae

73

Plant like protist. Motile by single flagellum and has characteristic pigmented "eyespot" as light detector.

Euglenoids

74

Plant like protist. Non-motile with glass like appearance due to silica in the cell walls, used as an abrasives in toothpaste.

Diatoms.

75

What is a cell?

Basic unit of life. All organisms are made up of at least one cell.

76

What are the four universal components of cells?

1. Cytoplasm (Semi-solid part of the cell)

2. Plasma membrane (Cell membrane)

3. DNA (Genetic material)

4. Ribosome (Site of protein synthesis)

77

Long, spiral bacteria (some are agents of STD's such as syphilis and lime disease)

Spirochetes

78

Kingdom made up of mostly multicellular, filamentous, spore-bearing, non-photosynthetic. Classification within the Kingdom is based on their sexual structures.

Kingdom Fungi

79

Member of Kingdom Fungi, sexual spores can survive under adverse environment.

Includes many molds that can cause food spoilage and may produce carcinogens

Zygomycetes (molds)

80

Member of Kingdon Fungi, sexual spores are borne in a club-like structure. Many are edible mushrooms.

Basidomycetes (club-fungi)

81

Member of Kingdom Fungi, produces hallucigenic (LSD-like) and toxic substance called "muscarin".

Amanita muscaria

82

Sac-like fungi, sexual spores are born in a sac-life structure. 8 spores in a sac (like a pea pod)

Asomycete

83

"Fungi imperfecti", sexual stage has not been found

Deuteromycetes

84

B-A-D-Z

Pneumonic for remembering Kingdom Fungi:

B-Basidomycetes
A-Asomycetes
D-euteromycetes
Z-Zygomycetes

85

Eukaryotic cells divide by __________.

Mitosis

86

Prokaryotic cells divide by __________.

Binary Fission

87

What are the four stages of mitosis?

Prophase, Metaphasse, Anaphase, Telaphase

88

What triggers sporulation?

Exhaustion of Nutrients

Accumulation of Toxic Metabolites

Drought

High Temp or pH

89

What are the four phases of the bacterial growth curve?

Lag, Log, Stationary, and Death phases

90

What happens in the lag phase of the bacterial growth curve?

Period of Adaptation, no significant increase in population, cells increase in size.

91

What happens in the log phase of the bacterial growth curve?

Period of exponential growth, most active metabolically, antibiotics will have the greatest effect

92

What happens in the stationary phase of the bacterial growth curve?

Period where the number of live cells = number of dead cells, space is limited, endospores begin to form

93

What happens in the death and decline phase of the bacterial growth curve?

Cells lose ability to divide, # of dead cells increases, endosporers are more abundant than cells.

94

Mechanism of Gene transfer in bacteria where a small piece of "naked DNA" from the environment is taken in by bacteria cell. Only occurs at certain stage of growth, plasmid, and parts of chromosomes from dead cells can get into host cell.

Transformation

95

Mechanism of gene transfer where DNA is transferred from a bacteriophage (virus that infects bacteria) to a bacterial cell

Transduction

96

Mechanism of gene transfer where direct transfer of DNA via F-Pilus, occurs usually between 2 related bacteria, but unrelated can mate.

Conjugation

97

Biosynthetic pathways. Large molecules are built from small building blocks. (Ie. dehydration synthesis)

Anabolic Pathways

98

Endorgonic requires ___________________.

Energy Input, chemical bonds are created.

99

Degradative pathways, large molecules are broken down to simpler ones

Catabolic pathways

100

Exorgonic= _______________________.

Energy is released, chemical bonds are broken.

101

Speed up chemical reactions without being used up in the process

Enzymes

102

Enzymes are usually named after their _____________.

substrates

103

Enzyme names end with "______"

"ase"

104

Specific molecular shape where the substrate "fits" into the enzyme due to a specific molecular shape.

"lock and key"

105

Extreme temperature, pH, ionic concentration are all factures in __________________.

Denaturation of an enzyme

106

Binding to active sites of enzymes, depriving substrates of their binding sites

Competitive Inhibition

107

Binding to other sites (other than the active site) thus deforming the shape of the active site is called _______________.

Non-competitive inhibition