8th Grade Science Chapter 2 and 3 Matter Test Review

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Prentice Hall Physical Science, Science Explorer; 8th Grade, Chapter 2 Introduction to Matter and Chapter 3 Solids, Liquids, and Gases
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1

Substance

a single kind of matter that is pure, meaning it always has a specific make-up - or composition - and a specific set of properties.

2

element

a pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance by physical or chemical means. Elements are the simplest substances.

3

What are the simplest substances?

Elements

4

Atom

The basic particle from which all elements are made. Different elements have different properties because they have different atoms.

5

Compound

pure substance made of two or more elements chemically combined in a set ratio.

6

How do you represent a compound?

using a chemical formula which shows the elements and their ratio of atoms.

7

Chemical Bond

when atoms combine they use the force of attraction between two atoms.

8

Mixture

made of two or more substances, elements or compounds or both, that are together in the same place but are not chemically combined.

9

How do mixtures differ from compounds?

Two ways:
1. Each substance keeps its individual properties.
2. Parts of a mixture are not combined in a set ratio.

10

Mass

measurement of the amount of matter in an object.

11

Weight

measure of the force of gravity on an object.

12

Does mass or weight change with the location of the object?

Mass does not, weight does.

13

Volume

The amount of space that matter occupies.

14

Density

relates the mass of a material in a given volume.

15

Endothermic Change

a change that occurs when energy is absorbed by a substance.

16

Formula for Volume

V= Length x Width x Height

17

SI unit for Volume

centimeters cubed

18

Formula for Density

D = Mass/Volume

19

exothermic change

a change that occurs when energy is released by a substance.

20

Energy

the ability to do work or cause change

21

fluid

a substance that flows

22

viscosity

a property of liquid to resist flowing

23

pressure

the force of a gas's outward push divided by the area of the walls of the container

24

What is the formula for pressure?

PRESSURE = FORCE/AREA

25

surface tension

the result of the inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together. It is a property of liquids. As a result of this property, some liquids can act as a sort of skin.

26

What is a physical property of matter? Give two examples.

A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance. Examples: freezing, melting, evaporation points, harness, texture, color, state, dissolvable, luster, malleability, flexibility,

27

What is a chemical property? give two examples.

characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into different substances. To observe these properties you must try to turn it into another substance. Examples: flammability, rust, oxidation, reactivity,

28

What are two types of mixtures?

Heterogeneous
Homogenous

29

Define Heterogeneous Mixture

You can see the different parts of the mixture.

30

Homogenous mixture

so evenly mixed that you can not see the different parts. A SOLUTION is an example.

31

What is the best example of a HOMOGENOUS MIXTURE?

A solution; Air, Salt Water, Brass

32

What is an example of a HETEROGENOUS MIXTURE?

Soil, salad, legos

33

Define Molecule.

Groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

34

3 Examples of Molecules

Water, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Salt

35

What is Chemistry?

Study of the properties of matter and how matter changes.

36

List and describe the 5 disciplines of chemistry.

Organic Chemistry - the study of carbon and its compounds; the study of the chemistry of life.

Inorganic Chemistry - the study of compounds not-covered by organic chemistry; the study of inorganic compounds or compounds which do not contain a C-H bond. Many inorganic compounds are those which contain metals.

Analytical Chemistry - the study of the chemistry of matter and the development of tools used to measure properties of matter.

Physical Chemistry - the branch of chemistry that applies physics to the study of chemistry. Commonly this includes the applications of thermodynamics and quantum mechanics to chemistry.

Biohemistry - the study of chemical processes that occur inside of living organisms.

37

What is the difference between mass and weight?

Mass does not change and is the amount of matter in an object. Weight changes with position in a gravity field and the gravity field and is just the measure of gravity affecting an object.

38

What is the formula for density?

DENSITY = MASS/VOLUME

39

What is the SI unit for Density?

g/cm3 (grams per centimeters cubed)

40

What is a physical change in matter? Give two examples.

Any change that alters the form or appearance of matter but does not make any substance in the matter into a different substance. EXAMPLE:
1. Change in state (solid, liquid, gas)
2. Change in shape

41

What is a chemical change in matter? Give two examples.

a change in matter that produces one or more new substances. EXAMPLES:
1. Combustion
2. Electrolysis
3. Oxidation
4. Tarnishing

42

What is the difference between ENDOTHERMIC and EXOGTHERMIC?

ENDOTHERMIC: Absorbs energy to support a reaction.
EXOTHERMIC: radiates energy as a product of a reaction.

43

What are the three states of matter?

Solid
Liquid
Gas

44

Create a table describing the shape and volume for each state of matter.

STATE SHAPE VOLUME EXAMPLE
Solid Definite Definite Diamond
Liquid Not Definite Definite Water
Gas Not Definite Not Definite Air

45

Sketch Picture of the particles of gas, liquid, and solid.

DRAW THEM.

46

List and define the six phase changes. tell whether they are endothermic or exothermic.

1. Melting: Change from a solid to a liquid. ENDOTHERMIC.
2. Freezing: Change from a liquid to a solid. EXOTHERMIC.
3. Evaporation: When a liquid turns into a gas only at the surface. ENDOTHERMIC.
4. Boiling: Liquid changes to a gas below its surface as well as at the surface. ENDOTHERMIC
5. Condensation: occurs when particles in gas loses enough energy to form a liquid. EXOTHERMIC
6. Sublimation: Particles of a solid go strait to gas. ENDOTHERMIC

47

Exothermic or Endothermic - Melting?

ENDOTHERMIC

48

Exothermic or Endothermic - Freezing?

EXOTHERMIC

49

Exothermic or Endothermic - Evaporation?

ENDOTHERMIC

50

Exothermic or Endothermic - Boiling?

ENDOTHERMIC

51

Exothermic or Endothermic - Condensation?

EXOTHERMIC

52

Exothermic or Endothermic - Sublimation?

ENDOTHERMIC

53

What are two types of vaporization?

Evaporation
Boiling

54

Define Evaporation:

Changing from a liquid to a gas at the surface.

55

Define Boiling:

Changing from a liquid to a gas at the surface and below the surface at the same time.

56

How are evaporation and boiling different?

Water does not change to gas below the surface during evaporation. Substances have a boiling point. they don't have evaporation points.

57

Sketch a heating curve of matter.

DRAW

58

Sketch the cooling curve of matter

DRAW

59

What is Boyles Law?

At a constant temperature:

1.To increase pressure you must reduce the volume.
2. To decrease pressure you must increase the volume.

60

Is Boyles law direct or an inverse relationship?

Inverse

61

What stays constant in BOYLES LAW?

Temperature.

62

What are the two variables in BOYLES LAW?

Pressure and Volume

63

What is Charles Law?

At constant pressure:
1. To increase temperature you must decrease volume.
2. To decrease temperature you must increase volume.

64

What stays constant in Charles law?

Pressure

65

What are the two variables in Charles Law?

Temperature and Volume

66

Draw a graph of Boyles Law. Label the X and Y Axis.

DRAW.

67

Draw a graph of Charles Law. Label the X and Y Axis.

DRAW