Organisms categorized as osmoconformers are most likely
A) found in freshwater lakes and streams.
D) found in arid terrestrial environments.
E) found in terrestrial environments with adequate moisture.
In animals, nitrogenous wastes are produced mostly from the catabolism of
A) starch and cellulose.
B) triglycerides and steroids.
C) proteins and nucleic acids.
D) phospholipids and glycolipids.
E) fatty acids and glycerol.
The point of connection between two communicating neurons is called
A) the axon hillock.
B) the dendrite.
C) the synapse.
D) the cell body.
E) the glia.
Asexual reproduction results in greater reproductive success than does sexual reproduction when
A) pathogens are rapidly diversifying.
B) a species has accumulated numerous deleterious mutations.
C) there is some potential for rapid overpopulation.
D) a species is expanding into diverse geographic settings.
E) a species is in stable and favorable environments.
Most of the exchange surfaces of multicellular animals are lined with
A) connective tissue.
B) smooth muscle cells.
C) neural tissue.
D) epithelial tissue.
E) adipose tissue.
Penguins, seals, and tuna have body forms that permit rapid swimming, because
A) all share a common ancestor at some point in the past.
B) all of their bodies have been compressed since birth by intensive underwater pressures.
C) flying, pregnancy, and gill-breathing all require similar adaptations in form.
D) the shape is a convergent evolutionary solution to the need to reduce drag while swimming.
E) this is the only shape that will allow them to maintain a constant body temperature in water.
A) is activated immediately upon infection.
B) depends on a newly infected animal's previous exposure to the same pathogen.
C) is based on recognition of antigens that are specific to different pathogens.
D) is found only in vertebrate animals.
E) utilizes highly specific antigen receptors on B cells.
With its abundance of collagenous fibers, cartilage is an example of
A) connective tissue.
B) reproductive tissue.
C) nervous tissue.
D) epithelial tissue.
E) adipose tissue.
Organisms with a circulating body fluid that is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have
A) an open circulatory system.
B) a closed circulatory system.
C) a gastrovascular cavity.
D) branched tracheae.
In frog embryos, the blastopore becomes the
Yearly vaccination of humans for influenza viruses is necessary because
A) of an increase in immunodeficiency diseases.
B) flu can generate anaphylactic shock.
C) surviving the flu one year exhausts the immune system to nonresponsiveness the second year.
D) rapid mutation in flu viruses alters the surface proteins in infected host cells.
E) flu leads to autoimmune disorders.
The nourishment, insulation, and support for neurons is the result of activity by the
A) smooth muscles.
B) adipose tissue.
C) endocrine system.
D) intercalated disks.
E) glial cells.
The body's automatic tendency to maintain a constant and optimal internal environment is termed
A) balanced equilibrium.
B) physiological chance.
D) static equilibrium.
Certain nutrients are considered "essential" in the diets of some animals because
A) only those animals use those nutrients.
B) the nutrients are subunits of important polymers.
C) these animals are not able to synthesize these nutrients.
D) the nutrients are necessary coenzymes.
E) only certain foods contain them.
Tissues are composed of cells, and tissues functioning together make up
C) organ systems.
All types of muscle tissue have
A) intercalated disks that allow cells to communicate.
B) striated banding patterns seen under the microscope.
C) cells that lengthen when appropriately stimulated.
D) a response that can be consciously controlled.
E) interactions between actin and myosin.
Of these types of hormone signaling, which travels the farthest through the body?
Out of innate and adaptive immunity, it is adaptive immunity that an annual flu shot provides.
A) allows animals to conserve resources and reproduce only during optimal conditions.
B) can produce diverse phenotypes that may enhance survival of a population in a changing environment.
C) yields more numerous offspring more rapidly than is possible with asexual reproduction.
D) enables males and females to remain isolated from each other while rapidly colonizing habitats.
E) guarantees that both parents will provide care for each offspring.
The receptors on T cells and B cells bind to
C) natural killer cells.
D) double-stranded RNA.
The large surface area in the gut directly facilitates
E) temperature regulation.
To increase the effectiveness of exchange surfaces lining the lungs and the intestines, evolutionary pressures have
A) increased the exchange surface area with folds and branches.
B) increased the thickness of the membranes in these linings.
C) increased the number of cell layers in these linings.
D) decreased the metabolic rate of the cells in these linings.
E) increased the volume of the cells in these linings.
In a positive-feedback system where hormone A alters the amount of protein X
A) an increase in A always produces an increase in X.
B) an increase in X always produces a decrease in A.
C) a decrease in A always produces an increase in X.
D) a decrease in X always causes a decrease in A.
E) it is impossible to predict how A and X affect each other.
In close comparisons, external fertilization often yields more offspring than does internal fertilization. However, internal fertilization offers the advantage that
A) it is the only way to ensure the survival of the species.
B) it requires less time and energy to be devoted to reproduction.
C) the smaller number of offspring produced often receive a greater amount of parental investment.
D) it permits the most rapid population increase.
E) it requires expression of fewer genes and maximizes genetic stability.
The parasympathetic portion of the nervous system prepares your body for "fight or flight".
When the temperature of the outside air exceeds their internal body temperature, jackrabbits living in hot, arid lands will
A) dilate the blood vessels in their large ears to transfer more body heat to the environment.
B) constrict the blood vessels in their large ears to reduce transfer of external heat to the blood in their ears.
C) increase motor movements to find a sunny area to maximize heat transfer into their bodies.
D) increase pigmentation in their ears, darkening them to maximize their capacity to take up heat.
E) begin involuntary shivering of their skeletal muscles in order to generate more metabolic heat.
Secondary immune responses upon a second exposure to a pathogen are due to the activation of
A) memory cells.
C) stem cells.
D) B cells.
E) T cells.
A cell with membrane-bound proteins that selectively bind a specific hormone is called that hormone's
A) secretory cell.
B) plasma cell.
C) endocrine cell.
D) target cell.
E) regulatory cell.
In a survivably cold environment, an ectotherm is more likely to survive an extended period of food deprivation than would an equally sized endotherm because the ectotherm
A) maintains a higher basal metabolic rate.
B) expends more energy per kg of body mass than does the endotherm.
C) invests little energy in temperature regulation.
D) metabolizes its stored energy more readily than can the endotherm.
E) has greater insulation on its body surface.
Coordinating body functions via chemical signals is accomplished by
A) the respiratory system.
B) the endocrine system.
C) the immune and lymphatic systems.
D) the integumentary system.
E) the excretory system.
In mammals, most gas exchange between the atmosphere and the pulmonary blood occurs in the
The two kinds of lymphocytes (white blood cells) are T cells and B cells; so named based on the body location where they mature.
Increased glucose levels in blood, after a meal, trigger
A) choleocytokin release from the pancreas
B) insulin release from the pancreas
C) glucagon release from the pancreas
D) secreton release from the duodenum
The primary difference bewteen vitamins and minerals is
A) one is needed in small quantities, the other in large
B) one is essential, the other is not
C) one is organic, the other is inorganic.
D) one is obtained via the environment, the other manufactured by the body.
Stratified cuboidal epithelium is composed of
A) several layers of boxlike cells.
B) a hierarchical arrangement of flat cells.
C) a tight layer of square cells attached to a basement membrane.
D) an irregularly arranged layer of pillarlike cells.
E) a layer of ciliated, mucus-secreting cells.
A) is a characteristic of most animals found in tropical zones.
B) is a characteristic of animals that have a fairly constant body temperature.
C) is a term equivalent to cold-blooded.
D) is a characteristic of mammals but not of birds.
E) is seen only in insects and in certain predatory fishes.